220 Million Bq/liter of Cesium now in No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool — SFP No. 1, 2, & 3 “clearly have significant spent fuel damage” (VIDEO)

Published: August 28th, 2011 at 7:02 am ET


Newly Released TEPCO Data Proves Fairewinds Assertions of Significant Fuel Pool Failures at Fukushima Daiichi, Fairewinds, August 26, 2011:

Transcript Excerpts

[…] Just 2 days ago, TEPCO released a report that has a water analysis of the condition of the spent fuel pools at Fukushima. This data was taken in August, August 19th and 20th, so it is very current and I wanted to share it with you today. […]

[T]he combination of both Cesiums in the fuel pool on Unit 2, is 220 million disintegrations per second in a liter of water.

So think of a liter Coke bottle and inside it the water is disintegrating at 220 million disintegrations every second, and that is just for Unit 2. The table also shows similar very high concentrations of Cesium in Unit 1 and in Unit 3. It clearly shows that there is damage to the fuel in those 3 units. […] Units 1, 2, & 3 clearly have significant spent fuel damage. […]

Newly Released TEPCO Data Proves Fairewinds Assertions of Significant Fuel Pool Failures at Fukushima Daiichi from Fairewinds Associates on Vimeo.

Published: August 28th, 2011 at 7:02 am ET


Related Posts

  1. 16 million Bq/liter of Cesium-137 in water at Fukushima Daiichi Spent Fuel Pool No. 1 — More than in June 2011 — Almost 5,000 times Unit 4’s levels March 23, 2013
  2. Ex-Chairman of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Upcoming ‘attempt’ to remove Fukushima Unit 4 spent fuel is very, very unprecedented — Pool has significant structural damage — Will be very risky (VIDEO) September 24, 2013
  3. Top scientists refute Japan gov’t: “Copious quantities” of radioactivity leaked from Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 — A “significant part” of overall cesium release October 25, 2011
  4. TEPCO: Nuclear fuel rods in No. 4 spent fuel pool are “confirmed to be damaged” — First time damage revealed at any pool April 13, 2011
  5. Suspected damage to fuel assembly racks in Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 — See anything missing? (VIDEO) November 21, 2011

152 comments to 220 Million Bq/liter of Cesium now in No. 2 Spent Fuel Pool — SFP No. 1, 2, & 3 “clearly have significant spent fuel damage” (VIDEO)

  • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

    8/28/2011 — MASSIVE EXPLOSION during eruption @ Sakurajima Volcano , Japan (VIDEO)

  • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

    Birds could be drones:
    birds shows an EXPLOSION until tepco stop the stream@ FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI POWER PLANT

  • Heart of the Rose Heart of the Rose

    What is spent fuel damage?

  • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

    8/26/2011 — Strange microwave anomaly = possible Hurricane IRENE weather modification

    8/26/2011 — INTENSE HAARP RING in Hurricane Irene = weather modification

  • In my opinion spent nuclear fuel has breached the concrete foundation of the reactors… (Its likely a corium batter) swiveling in the cooling operations pressure currents, Fissioning from time to time, irradiating the entire interior of the buildings… All the while radioactive decayed fuel and sludge, is eating the reactors from the inside out, You have to realize the insides of the structures are now dripping with highly contaminated condensation, from the ceiling to the floor… Yes, my friends Tepco is in evacuation of these reactors. They are much too dangerous for humans to intervene…

    Its very likely the reason why we are getting the run around from Tokyo’s environmental protection agency. “Which I noted earlier is in cahoots with nuclear power officials”… Could this be the japanese are implementing such heavy PR In regards to squashing online Fukushima rumors. It seems after every sizable quake we are seeing more and more sizable “fog” activity from the reactors. Note that the report of steam rising from cracks in outside area foundation likely indicate that massive amounts of ground contamination is already taking place in Fukushima. Whats worse is the contamination figures can grow exponentially without warning, both in quantity, and geographically.

    Another article was also just released giving more support to the argument of ‘a china syndrome’ taking place in ‘Fukushima’.

    “Just recently the Chinese have reported finding 100,000 square miles of oceanic contamination, with surprisingly high levels of strontium, cesium and iodine… (All of which are cancer causing agents); ”

    Though atmospheric releases are the main fears of most citizens abroad. In japan FOOD and WATER contamination reports are far behind where they should be (in August)…

    My guess is that Tepco plans to keep the news that way. As to further hamper international intelligence communities; in respect to the full disclosure of the dangers that are imposed on humanity…

    Once Tokyo begins releasing more, and more fresh water radiation levels;

    There will be “for once” a clear and indisputable and official representation of what We’ve known here on ‘enenews’ all along. Your ground water and food supplies are contaminated.
    Its time to leave japan.

    Why did the nuclear power company tepco chooses to spend millions of dollars to withhold this information??? That part truly amazes me, My opinion is that government parties are working hard on international (government protection plans). on the left, while were slowly understanding and concentrating on putting the pieces together on the right…

    This is Obviously not why the PM is Retiring…
    Oh but despicable you Tacomagroove. Despicable you…

    • DUDe DisasterInterpretationDissorder

      Those responsible for the lack of safety of every industry , and the liars should face justice in den haag for crimes against the future generations, against humanity and genocide for profit.
      Oh, and wistleblowers are the heroes of democracy. They need to be rewarded and honored, not criminalised. I want special laws written for that in the new society to come (hopefully,knock wood) .

    • We talked about this very early on, If our gov. knew a speeding comet/meteor was going to smash and destroy life as we know it on earth, do you think the gov.’s of the world would tell the people ???

      Can you imagine the types of crimes that would take place among the population of types knowing that there was a short time left ?
      This disaster will be a prolonged version of this scenario and it is best to have thing appear to be as normal as possible, evacuation in place !

      Also the condition of the plant becoming so got with radioactive build up that could not be managed by human intervention was a certainty from the beginning, All the effort’s with the coriums as they were/are led only to a totally no mans land for Japans future and Japan and other country leaders have know this from the near beginning moving key component’s of survival, business’s out !
      Everything is worded carefully in these news events to allow readers to believe the reasons for many thing are other then evacuation to not cause a panic for everything as I said early on, to allow a structured withdraw without disturbing the populations routine’s and lives !
      If a mass exodus takes place it will be after the larger parts of the machinery that has brought Japans wealth is removed prior to other parts of the world !
      Soon or later we all will be forced also to except that the contamination will on spread and compile to all corners of the earth and also become to inhabitable for life as we know it !
      With this spent fuel pools above ground adds a wild card to the mix being above ground and soon no man will be able to apply water because the radiation levels will not allow human intervention to apply water !
      How long is anyones guess, but eventually it will become so hot in the area there will be a no return from this job, … A suicide mission and soon after many men will not be able to fulfill the task, and recritical’s of old rods will begin to interact sporadically or spontaneously putting masses more pollutions into the atmosphere endlessly while the corium’s burn to whatever reactions the earth will provide in their burning descent !

      Some of us have excepted this and made our adjustments !

    • westcoastgirl westcoastgirl

      Tacomagroove, I am wondering if you have a link for the article about the china syndrome.

      • http://theintelhub.com/2011/08/21/fukushima-china-syndrome/

        The China Syndrome:“A hypothetical sequence of events
        following the meltdown of a nuclear reactor, in which the core
        melts through its containment structure and deep into the earth.”
        New Oxford American Dictionary.

        Normally I would start an essay like this with the video below at the top, but I find it important to introduce it and the general tone this essay is going to take first. There are only two ways we learn. It’s either repetition or impact. Because the truth is getting out of hand, I am going for impact.

        First I would like to invite everyone to a parade. In this parade we invite everyone from the nuclear industry and all the governmental agencies involved. It is time for us to give them our thanks and well wishes for threatening all life on earth.
        In times past the most beastly monsters were the priests standing on top of the Aztec pyramids waiting with knives to cut the hearts out of prisoners, one after another, all day long, and the river of blood would run. We could actually argue all day or have a contest for worst monster-of-the-year award and look back in time to see our history full of mean, despicable men.

        Having a China Syndrome in Fukushima promises us bad times for a long time to come.

        It promises a river of our children’s blood and that blood flow is already flowing through children’s noses, as certain doctors have reported in Japan and as certain doctors noticed during the Gulf oil disaster. (See below)


        There are actually a lot of people we should invite to march in this parade. Even some we would never think of, like all the executives from Coke and Pepsi who have been busy poisoning the world’s population with their biologically corrosive soft drinks.

        One normally does not put these names up there with Monsanto and the Pentagon boys, with all their subcontractors in lethal weaponry. But when we think of former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and the aspartame story and how these companies happily distribute this poison to the public, the picture becomes much clearer.

        Denial is the name of the toxicity game that industry has played for well over a hundred years. From the chemical industry, then the petrochemical industry, on into the pharmaceutical universe and then the atomic one, those who make money from toxic substances deny that there is any problem with them in terms of health.

        We have hell on earth putting out intense radioactive steam made worse by the disgusting people who keep that news and information out of most people’s view.

        Pure Effect Water Filters – Safeguard Your Drinking Water From Fluoride And Radiation(Ad)

        Perhaps the news is so bad, when looking forward through the corridors of time through generations of children to come (or not to come), that knowing of our bad fortune makes no difference, so why should we be told anything?

        Sometimes we writers get frustrated with words (not very often) because words and ideas often cannot approach the magnitude of the reality we wish to speak about. In today’s mad world anything can be said, but life continues on its steady course even if it’s the path to hell.
        Today we hide things in plain sight. Did you know that Time Magazine was already talking about China Syndromes in Fukushima in May? I must have missed this one:

        “The China Syndrome refers to a scenario in which a molten nuclear reactor core could fission its way through its containment vessel, melt through the basement of the power plant and down into the earth.

        While a molten reactor core wouldn’t burn ‘all the way through to China,’ it could enter the soil and water table and cause huge contamination in the crops and drinking water around the power plant. It’s a nightmare scenario, the stuff of movies. And it might just have happened at Fukushima.”

        And now we hear from Gunter in the video above that it has happened, and also from an unidentified Fukushima employee saying in an email, “A lot of the cracks came up in the ground. Massive steam is coming up from there. It’s too smoggy here. Can’t see a thing. It seems like a nuclear reaction is happening underground. Now, we are evacuating. Watch out for the direction of the wind.”

        Dr. Tatsuhiko Kodama, 58, head of the University of Tokyo Radioisotope Center, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, said, “Radiation has a high risk to embryos in pregnant women, juveniles, and highly proliferative cells of people of growing ages.

        Even for adults, highly proliferative cells, such as hair, blood, and intestinal epithelium cells, are sensitive to radiation,” he stated, becoming impatient with government’s delayed reaction in helping the people survive the worsening conditions.

        Doctors in Japan are already treating patients suffering health effects they attribute to radiation from the ongoing nuclear disaster. “We have begun to see increased nosebleeds, stubborn cases of diarrhoea, and flu-like symptoms in children,” Dr. Yuko Yanagisawa, a physician at Funabashi Futawa Hospital in Chiba Prefecture, told Al Jazeera.

        She attributes the symptoms to radiation exposure, and added:
        “We are encountering new situations we cannot explain with the body of knowledge we have relied upon up until now.” Yanagisawa’s hospital is located approximately 200km from Fukushima, so the health problems she is seeing that she attributes to radiation exposure causes her to be concerned by what she believes to be a grossly inadequate response from the government.

        Flu-Like Symptoms

        Flu-like symptoms: dizziness, nausea, nosebleeds, vomiting, headaches, coughing and difficulty breathing or what is sometimes known as the “blue flu,” are common clinical pictures we see in chemical and heavy-metal poisoning as well as from radiation overdoses.

        That chemical exposure symptoms feel like flu is a medical reality that medical officials have refused to accept or deal with as the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico brought out.

        Because the official position federal governments around the world take, (all gathered together and controlled by international organizations like the UN, WHO, IMF and others) that everything dangerous is safe, and that viruses are responsible for all influenza, we do not hear much about toxic threats and what to do about them.
        Professor I. M. Trakhtenberg of Russia tells dentists, doctors and coal-fired electric plant operators, all of whom expose the public to massive amounts of mercury, “Chronic mercury exposure is also a threat to our health and makes us especially vulnerable to flu infections.

        It has been shown that “prolonged exposure of mammals (white mice) to low mercury concentrations (0.008-0.02mg/m3) leads to a significant increase in the susceptibility of mice to pathological influenza virus strains.”

        We do not need to be attacked by the influenza virus to get the flu! When we are attacked with nasty chemicals, heavy metals or nuclear radiation, we are as likely to get the flu-like symptoms as when we are run over by viruses, which are more likely to cause a pandemic and drive health officials mad.

        Obviously the treatment, in allopathic terms, for a virus-generated flu compared to the treatment for radiation exposure or a chemically-induced flu is quite different, but in terms of my Natural Allopathic Medicine protocol the treatments are quite the same.

        Thyroid Exposure:

        Medical tests on children living in three towns near the crippled Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear plant found 45 percent of those surveyed suffered low-level thyroid radiation exposure, Japan’s government said in a statement, reported Bloomberg News.

        The last thing anyone wants today is to have a thyroid gland deficient in iodine because then it will readily take on the nasty radioactive isotope of iodine when exposed to it. Dr. David Brownstein has tested 5,000 of his patients and has found out that 95 percent of them are iodine deficient.

        One cannot repeat this vital information enough!
        Mercury induces the thyroid gland
        to absorb an increasing amount of
        nuclear radiation from the environment.
        Trakhtenberg, 1974

        The Japanese are much less iodine deficient but that does not explain what I reported two days ago, that the Japanese government is prosecuting some people for the use of iodine and in generally cutting their citizens off at the pass in terms of allowing them access to this vital mineral.

        If the Japanese can recover the roots of their culture many in the government and in the nuclear power industry are going to be handed the sword to commit their traditional ritual suicide.

        For children and thyroid-sensitive people I recommend Nascent Iodine, which is in the I¹ atomic form, or Lugol’s, which is more affordable for heavy topical treatments and the different tablets (Iodoral) that are out there. Even topical iodine tincture may be used but cannot be taken orally.


        In my book Nuclear Toxicity Syndrome is a much needed protocol that will provide a great measure of protection from radioactive fallout and mercury exposure. The desperate attempts to contain the fallout from the shattered atomic Fukushima Daiichi plant have failed, meaning the threat will continue to grow.

        None of us could have calculated in our wildest dreams the extent of what is happening in northern Japan and how the radiation would spread across the northern hemisphere.

        Back in May the Dr. Chris Busby said, “The situation continues to worsen. Of course it’s time for the Japanese government to take control. But having said that, it’s very hard to know how you could take control of the situation. The situation is essentially out of control.” That has never been truer than today if the China Syndrome is in effect.

        There is no reason to doubt a China Syndrome, it’s a rational conclusion to a full meltdown. The fission of the melted fuel is too hot for anything to contain. Water has been escaping somewhere from the reactors, through cracks made from the earthquake and also from courses opened by molten fuel.

        We know that the melted nuclear materials have broken past their reactor containment and have dropped into the basement of the reactor buildings. At some point it would make sense for that process to continue melting through the basement floor into the earth.

        The dimension of the tragedy is growing for there is no way for them to get to the problem if it’s down to the water table already.

        • Also:
          Fukushima China Syndrome ‘clearly a concern’: Expert

          Fukushima ‘seriously out of control,’ nuclear industry seriously in control of global media blackout

          Since Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant has reportedly released 20 times the radiation contamination amount of the Hiroshima bomb, and its molten core is sinking through the Earth’s crust, it appears to be in early stages of a “total China Syndrome meltdown” according to a Russia Today report Thursday during which Beyond Nuclear’s Paul Gunter answered why media is blacking out the catastrophe, as noted by numerous scientists, and he revealed the increasing threat of a nuclear explosion.

          “The total amount of leakage [is] about 29.6 times the amount of contamination caused by the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Assuming the source material to be uranium, we think the total amount of leakage to be about 20 times what was caused by the Hiroshima bomb.”

          Those were among alarming words stated by Dr. Tatsuhiko Kodama, 58, head of the University of Tokyo Radioisotope Center Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology in Meguro-ku in an interview with The Mainichi Daily News on August 20.

          Dr. Kodama had reported the same data as he testified before Japanese Parliament’s Committee for Health, Labor and Welfare of the Lower House of the Diet on July 27. His testimony made headline news in Japan, but not in the U.S. according to Russia Today’s Tom Hartmann who wanted to know why media is continuing its blackout campaign against best interest of the public.

          It is not as though Dr. Kodama is not highly qualified to be collecting and analyzing radiation data. He has been working to develop cancer treatment methods using isotopes; is well informed about internal radiation exposure problems; and has been visiting the city of Minamisoma in Fukushima Prefecture every weekend to conduct radiation measurements and decontamination at locations such as kindergartens according to The Mainichi Daily News.

          “Radiation has a high risk to embryos in pregnant women, juveniles, and highly proliferative cells of people of growing ages. Even for adults, highly proliferative cells, such as hairs, blood, and intestinal epithelium cells, are sensitive to radiation,” he stated, becoming impatient with government’s delayed reaction in helping the people survive the worsening conditions.

          As the molten core sinks into the ground, increasing the nuclear plant’s lethality, an unidentified Fukushima employee said, “A lot of the cracks came up in the ground. Massive steam is coming up from there. It’s too smoggy here. Can’t see a thing. It seems like nuclear reaction is happening underground. Now, we are evacuating. Watch out for the direction of the wind.”

          The statement was sent via a Tokyo friend of Hartmann who interviewed Gunter.

          Dr. Kodama told Mainichi Daily on Saturday, “What’s more, the radiation will decrease at a much slower rate than after the A-bomb. When the amount of radiation is small, it’s enough to consider on-the-spot radiation. But when the total volume is huge, we have to think about how the particles will disperse.”

          “This happens in a non-linear manner, which is very difficult to calculate scientifically, because concentration is apt to occur in unpredictable locations. This will keep happening, such as when feed-hay for cattle was contaminated by cesium, and when contamination was found in tea and leaf mulch.”

          “So what exactly is going on there?” asked Hartmann on Russia Today. “And why the media back-out on this increasingly severe nuclear disaster?”

          It has been 160 days since the earthquake and tsunami crippled Japan’s nuclear energy plant at Fukushima, but information is still not forthcoming according to Hartmann.

          Director of the Reactor Oversight Project at Beyond Nuclear, the regulatory watchdog over the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and nuclear power industry, Paul Gunter joined Hartmann to shed light on what media is blacking out.

          Gunter was a 2008 recipient of the Jane Bagley Lehman Award from Tides Foundation for his work on the nuclear power and climate change. He has appeared on NBC Nightly World News, The Lehrer News Hour, BBC World News and Amy Goodman’s “Democracy Now!” He co-founded Clamshell Alliance in 1976 to oppose Seabrook (NH) nuclear power plant construction through non‐violent direct action that launched the U.S. antinuclear movement.

          Before joining Beyond Nuclear, Gunter served 16 years as Director of the Reactor Watchdog Project for Nuclear Information and Resource Service. He is a New Englander, born in Mississippi, and reared in Detroit, MI.

          Core melting into Earth, radiation 1 million millirems per hour

          “Cracks came up in the ground; massive steam coming up from there,” Hartmann repeated.

          “That sounds a lot like the China Syndrome. The core melting down into the Earth and hitting the water table.”

          Gunter replied, “We know now there have been three meltdowns at the six-unit site and the vessel has failed.

          “This melted reactor’s melted core has burned through the concrete floor of the buildings, into the Earth and is reaching the ground water and creating steam.”

          “The readings we’re seeing now, suggest that it’s off-scale for the instrumentation used by the workers,” he said.

          “Five-hundred REM is the lethal dose. This is 1000 REM coming out of these cracks. So, we’re seeing doses that could cause fatalities within days.”

          According to Gunter, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) permissible radiation amount for the public is 100 millirem per year. This is 1 million millirem per hour. So, these are lethal doses that are coming out of the ground.’

          Gunter said, “They have been looking to contain this accident by building tents over the reactor units which os kind of ludicrous of itself and shows their level of desperation.”

          Media blackout ‘by global nuclear industry’ means ‘indy-media’ is critical

          “This accident is clearly more seriously out of control than they are willing to admit,” Gunter said.

          Fuel fragments found over one and a half miles away from the facility did not come from explosions from the spent fuel pools. according to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.”

          “They were ejected from the nuclear core from the beginning.”

          “The problem is that, as we pointed out on our very first interview with you,” Gunter told Hartmann, “the first thing to be controlled in these nuclear accidents is the information.”

          “And now, 160 days into this accident and we still see that the information is being withheld. There’s an incredible lag time – months before we really understand the situation,” Gunter said.

          Hartmann reiterated that the catastrophe is releasing 20 to 29 times more contamination than the Hiroshima bomb but he did not see Dr. Kodama’s new data “in a single newspaper in the United States.”

          Why not?

          Hartman said that a global nuclear industry is in control of media.

          “We’re really dependent on indymedia these days,” he said. “Shows like yours, like what’s on blogs, on Youtube.”

          “This is where news on Fukushima breaks first.”

          Nuclear explosion major concern now

          “In a China Syndrome, like we’re apparently seeing at Fukushima right now, the nuclear core melts down,” Hartmann said, referring to the 1979 American thriller film.

          “If this was in Nevada, it would be no big deal. It would end up in the dirt some place buried forever.”

          Most nuclear energy plants, however, including in the U.S., are built right next to water for cooling, so the water table is right there.

          “Isn’t this like an inherently insane system?” Hartmann asked Gunter.

          “It’s inherently dangerous,” Gunter asserted. “Once it’s out of control, the consequences are unacceptable.”

          “The big concern right now is that, we don’t really know, because we don’t have reliable information on how hot that melted core is.”

          “If it’s hot enough, it can separate out the elemental forms of water – hydrogen and oxygen, and that creates an underground explosive environment.”

          Friday, Mainichi Daily reported that another earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 6.8 shook northeastern Japan, reportedly causing no abnormalities at the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant.

          Continue reading on Examiner.com Fukushima China Syndrome ‘clearly a concern’: Expert – National Human Rights | Examiner.com http://www.examiner.com/human-rights-in-national/fukushima-early-stage-china-syndrome-global-media-blackout#ixzz1WMZEU2F6

          • Was Fukushima a China Syndrome?


            Was Fukushima a China Syndrome?
            Posted by EBEN HARRELL Monday, May 16, 2011 at 2:00 pm
            110 Comments • Related Topics: energy , china syndrome, fukushima, fukushima daiichi, melt down

            The China Syndrome refers to a scenario in which a molten nuclear reactor core could could fission its way through its containment vessel, melt through the basement of the power plant and down into the earth. While a molten reactor core wouldn’t burn “all the way through to China” it could enter the soil and water table and cause huge contamination in the crops and drinking water around the power plant. It’s a nightmare scenario,the stuff of movies. And it might just have happened at Fukushima.

            Last week, plant operator Tepco sent engineers in to recalibrate water level gauges in reactor number 1. They made an alarming discovery: virtually all the fuel in the core had melted down. That means that the zirconium alloy tubes that hold the uranium fuel and the fuel itself lies in a clump—either at the bottom of the pressure vessel, or in the basement below or possibly even outside the containment building. Engineers don’t know for sure, though current temperature readings suggest that fission inside the reactor core has definitely ceased for good (i.e. there will be no further melting).

            Anecdotal evidence doesn’t bode well for how far the fuel melted: Tepco has been pumping thousands of tons of water onto reactor 1 to try to cool it—yet the water level in the containment vessel is too low to run an emergency cooling system. That means the water is escaping somewhere on a course cut by molten fuel–probably into the basement of the reactor building, though it’s also possible it melted through everything into the earth.

            Many experts say a full-blown China syndrome is unlikely in large part because the fuel from the type of reactors at Fukushima is designed in such a way that it probably won’t sustain “recriticality” once meltdown occurs. What’s more, boron, which slows nuclear reactions, was pumped into the cooling water of the reactor after the initial accident to prevent the core from going “critical” again.

            But assuming a worst case scenario hasn’t occurred, having so much highly radioactive water sloshing around the basement is going to make cleanup even more difficult. Tepco says it will come up with a new plan to stabilize the reactor by Tuesday—and their main task will be to find a way to suck up the water and store it while simultaneously ensuring the reactor core remains cool. It’s unclear how this will be achieved, but according to press reports, a giant water-storage barge – a Megafloat – has been dispatched to Fukushima as a possible storage site for contaminated water, and will arrive at the end of the month.

            Tepco also said that it has started preparatory work for the construction of a cover for unit 1’s reactor building, which had its roof blown off by a hydrogen explosion on March 12. The cover is to be built as a temporary measure to prevent the release of radioactive substances until further measures can be put in place, Nature News reported.

            Meanwhile, around 5,000 residents in two towns, Kawamata and Iitate, some 30 km from the power plant—well beyond the the 20 km exclusion zone–were evacuated on Monday. More evacuations are expected in the coming days as Tepco continues to struggle with the crisis. Around 3,400 cows, 31,500 pigs and 630,000 chickens will soon be slaughtered inside the Fukushima exclusion zone as feeding them has proven to be impossible.

            It’s difficult to say for sure just how bad things are at the plant itself—high radioactive levels mean that engineers can’t get close to the reactor cores themselves and can only make inferences, deductions and guesses about the extent of the damage. As Alexis Madrigal of the Atlantic has pointed out, we’ve faced this uncertainty—and troubling surprises— before. Eight months after the Three Mile Island accident, “an Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientist declared, ‘Little, if any, fuel melting occurred, even though the reactor core was uncovered. The safety systems functioned reliably.’ A few years later, robotic sorties into the area revealed that half the core — not ‘little, if any’ — had melted down.”

            I and TIME’s Kiev-based stringer recently published a piece for TIME from Chernobyl in Ukraine, where clean-up efforts continue a full 25 years after the accident. Whatever the end game at Fukushima, get your head around this, folks: it is going to be a huge mess for a long time yet.

            Read more: http://ecocentric.blogs.time.com/2011/05/16/was-fukushima-a-china-syndrome/#ixzz1WMaHeet1

          • westcoastgirl westcoastgirl

            I’ve seen all of these articles before…but although I don’t doubt that there may be a China Syndrome happening, it seems like it’s pretty much speculation and questions, not total confirmation.

            I would like to have confirmation that it’s actually what’s happening; don’t know if that will happen or not, it depends on the completely unreliable government officials, the silent MSM, and of course TEPCO, reknowned for their honesty and openness about the details of what’s going on…

            I also would like to know exactly what a the consequences of a China syndrome really are…an explosion? A steam venting of the contents of the core? Woulkd the workers be forced to evacuate? I wish I knew.

            There also seems to be a controversy about whether the NPP is on bedrock or if there is ground water under it. I guess that would make a difference. But it seems like quite a few days have gone by without any real confirmation about what is going on now.

        • also:Fukushima entering “China syndrome” phase of full core meltdown

          Three reactors at the Fukushima Dai’ichi nuclear power plant in Japan have suffered full core meltdowns breaking through the containment vessels and lying in a pool on the concrete floors. News reports from Japan but not reported widely in the US indicate that the fuel is now melting its way through the earth’s crust an event termed the China syndrome where once the superheated core hits groundwater intense pressure will fracture the surrounding earth venting of highly radioactive steam into the atmosphere.

          Since Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant has reportedly released 20 times the radiation contamination amount of the Hiroshima bomb, and its molten core is sinking through the Earth’s crust, it appears to be in early stages of a “total China Syndrome meltdown” according to a Russia Today report Thursday during which Beyond Nuclear’s Paul Gunter answered why media is blacking out the catastrophe, as noted by numerous scientists, and he revealed the increasing threat of a nuclear explosion.
          “The total amount of leakage [is] about 29.6 times the amount of contamination caused by the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Assuming the source material to be uranium, we think the total amount of leakage to be about 20 times what was caused by the Hiroshima bomb.”

          Those were among alarming words stated by Dr. Tatsuhiko Kodama, 58, head of the University of Tokyo Radioisotope Center Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology in Meguro-ku in an interview with The Mainichi Daily News on August 20.

        • livelife

          Thank you Tacoma for the time you put into this. And everyone else. I don’t like seeing people ganging up on each other.

          This is a great community, I like seeing constructive debate, no bashing please! You all are great!!! I can’t believe how many people in my community are blind to all this. What a nightmare.

      • Net

        Westcoastgirl, Just curious did you get your gieger counter yet? I have a hard time finding your comments so I am not sure if you have posted any findings in CA. Keep us posted and repeat- Thanks!

    • Bobby1

      From the link:

      ‘It’s getting more difficult and more to buy “clean” food in Japan.
      You can even call it the state of “civil war”.
      Please tell this truth to everyone around you and save us.’

      In the same way:

      It’s getting more difficult and more to buy “clean” food in the US. You can even call it the state of “civil war”. Please tell this truth to everyone around you and save the US.

      • Whoopie Whoopie

        So horrific reading a piece like that. I mean HOW CAN YOU NOT CRY over this!??! Not you..but anyone. So frigging sad. It’s like watching a slow motion death over Japan. Heartbreaking.

        • Steven Steven

          Oh dear. This is beyond horrifying but I fear we can only do so much – the Japanese must rise up and fight for themselves and their children.

          • stock stock@hawaii.rr.com

            Actually, they need to rise up and fight their mess for the sake of everyone on the planet.

        • Bobby1

          I am very sorry for the people of Japan. I am also very sorry for the people of America.

          The Japanese are facing the contamination of their food supply. Americans are facing the contamination of their food supply.

          But the Japanese know their food is contaminated. Americans don’t.

          Japan has a completely inadequate food testing program. America has no food testing at all.

          Japan has testing of radioactive contamination of the air and drinking water. America discontinued even the routine testing it had before the disaster.

          It is heartbreaking to see the Japanese witness the destruction of their country, with their eyes open. It is just pathetic to see Americans unwittingly being sent to their destruction, like fatted calves to the slaughter.

          • WindorSolarPlease

            You are so right, we are getting their radiation here also.

            Canada and Mexico are also getting hit by this radiation.

            Someone mentioned, it’s a blob that keeps growing and spreading.

            It will travel, even to other Countries, going around the world.

            This is why it is a Global Problem, not just Japan’s problem.

            Nuclear Power ~ “To Great Of A Risk”

          • Bobby1

            Don’t eat the poison they are serving to us. Let the politicians, corporate moguls, and pro-nuke sociopaths have it. Let them drop dead, and then there will be more of us than them, and WE WIN.

    • Pallas89juno Pallas89juno

      Dear Whoopie: It looks like Manhattan Project type public radiation experiments are being conducted on the people of Japan and on any of the nations importing this poison without the public being told. The lack of ethics is almost just as glaring in the case of post-311 JP, since children, who are a vulnerable segment of the population without choice, are being forced to eat contaminated products without ethical consent procedures (these are impossible for such experiments) even though they are 30x or more, more sensitive to the radionuclides. One could say the MP experiments were more unethical because they were conducted in full secrecy; but I think an equally pernicious process of calming the public through open reportage of unacceptable behaviors by corporations and government, or “desensitization” of the Japanese public is being pushed. Desensitization is (a common CIA tactic used in the U.S. media), perhaps, worse than secrecy because it’s intent is to prevent revolution (against the current despots) by making the abuse by the government, corporations involved seem “normative” through repeated apparently open or transparent reporting that is mis-contextualized or showing no appropriate backlash from the public and/or by showing any such appropriate backlash as “bad apples”, “crazies”, “non-nationalistic”, etc. You can see examples of this sort of thing all the time in the U.S. English language media on non-nuclear topics that are intensely problematic and incredibly non-inevitable, such as about increasing corporate, military and covert control over our government.

      • Misitu

        Pallas89juno says “radiation experiments are being conducted on the people of Japan”

        and to me this seems likely. My general caution on conspiracy theories leads me to revisit this as an opportunist rather than preplanned exercise, possibly in connection with the hypothetical “Appendix to Risk Assessment, Plan B, Multiple Meltdowns”.

        In plain language, “OK the worst’s happened. We know there can be no cleanup, no mitigation; the brakes are off. So, first of all, keep the State, the machinery, industry going: News Management. Our Best Trading Partner is set up to carry out synchronised activity in support, with other TPs acting in concert. If this phase is successful there will be no large scale panic. Phase Two, covert medical research, will then come into action. Clearly much valuable diagnostic and treatment information can be gleaned from such a large scale contamination incident. This medical phase will also have to be News Managed in order to prevent suspicion arising as to its true nature.”

        I kind of made this up “on a roll” and could have done much better but would be interesting to see what others think.


  • James2

    I find it interesting in arnie’s latest video, as in the past, he’s holding on to the fantasy that the #3 spent fuel pool caused the explosion of the #3 reactor.

    There are many reasons this is not possible., but the most obvious is the fact that the pool remains intact enough to hold water while the rest of the building is destroyed. It’s not possible for explosive forces to start in a container that is not destroyed and destroy items outside it.

    But Arnie wants us to believe this – really badly. Even in the wake of overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

    Which makes me wonder what his motivations are. Perhaps he knows that as soon as the public understands #3 core blew that the industry is dead – and he wants the industry to live. Perhaps he’s just ignorant. I’m not sure, but I think Arnie is on here, so I’d like to hear his reply.

    • Steven Steven

      Good points James2, I had the immediate impression that the RPV took off like a rocket in the R3 blast. That said I can’t figure out how the SFP could have survived such an event, but I guess explosions are strange beasts and the pool would be a tough cookie to bite on, also it’s situated off centre (sorry, that should be ‘center’ for our US readers 🙂 ) No doubt TEPCO et al will keep us all guessing to the very end.

      “as soon as the public understands #3 core blew that the industry is dead”

      What makes you think so btw? Seems to me the general public isn’t all that bothered by any of this.

      • WindorSolarPlease

        I agree with Steven, even though people are starting to understand the ramifications of this disaster, most of the public isn’t bothered by this. They don’t care if #3 blew or not. They don’t even think this will effect them.

        There are people who aren’t even thinking about how the power plants could be damaged by the earth quakes and the Irene Storm.

        Nuclear industry is far from dead, if it was, plants would be closing left and right.

        The energy corporations have lots of influences and power, these are the big boys. They are not going to let something go, that is making them money or power.

        We need these corporations, so people can work, and because we need energy.
        I just wish they would go in a different direction in making a safer energy for the environment and for the people.

    • selfsovereign

      Arnie is one of the best spokesman we are gonna get.

      Even after 3-mile island,chernobyl and fukushima arnie is STILL PRO NUKE.

      Arnie designed the fuel assemblies that melted down at 3mile.

      Arnie has been approached by SEVERAL construction workers WHO BUILT THOSE FLIPPIN’ reactors, the workers claim they used cheaper, inferior concrete, also the builders of nuclear reactors told Arnie that they didn’t use as many bolts to hold the flippin reactor together as the engineers plans specified. Instead they cut of the heads of bolts and pressed them into the concrete.

      YET, ARNIE is still pro nuke, even when he gets independent corroboration of these extreme violations of basic reactor design.

      I LOVE the perspective and informative knowledge that YOU, ARNIE, bring to this macabre nightmare of slowly evolving genetic destruction.

      BUT, lets not be childishly naive. Arnie is the ultimate SHILL.

      When ARNIE stands up alongside those PSYCHOPATHS from the navy, whom have been dumping nuclear cores and core water in our oceans (and the puget sound! BASTARDS) for sixty FLIPPIN years, ARNIE shows his true colors. DOES ANYONE REMEMBER?? R-E-M-E-M-B-E-R STAN. lol

      I don’t personally believe that ANYONE COULD be as naive as ARNIE pretends, after what he has seen, and insider info that he has been privy to.

      Try to keep in mind the social control method of divide and conquer.

      Borders of countries, skin color/race, political orientation, sexual orientation, RELIGION —- these are all made up LIES (yeah, thats right, I SAID IT!). Over the past two thousand years these HIGHLY VALUED traits ( I will NEVER,EVER understand patriotism!) have divided us and caused unnessasary suffering.

      But never forget that the methods of divide and conquer were PERFECTED HUNDREDS OF YEARS AGO.

      Just grow a pair (men are stupid, but I love this saying!), and read the “WILLIE LYNCH LETTER”. If you have the stomach.

      Your flippin library carries this disgustingly effective piece of enslavement protocol.

      Borders dont exist. Try telling radiation that it needs a VISA!!
      Countries NEVER existed.
      Money has no basis in reality (a fiat currency is a fictional entity).
      And patriotism is an illusion used to convince “children” to travel half way around the world in order to kill a perfect stranger.

      Together we humans ARE strong and capable of anything.If only we can FIND A WAY TO COME TOGETHER!

      So long as we go at each others throats, battling,bickering and belittling each other (I’m guilty as charged), the powers that be SMILE knowingly, believing they have won.

      I have tried to ONLY use my intellect to discourage SHILLS, and point out the glaringly obvious.

      Hate on me if you need to, water off a ducks back, to me.

      • Hi Self-Sovereign

        I agree with your position, but I am becoming pessimistic and think either

        1. Social conditioning is all powerful

        2. Humans are not very nice beings, kind of like chipanzees, which aren’t very nice compared to Gorillas and Orangutangs (sp?).

      • dharmasyd dharmasyd

        This exegesis superbly exemplifies why Leo Slizard must be awarded the posthumous award for recognizing that nuclear insanity could result in setting the atmoshpere on fire—–

        —aomething which I think we can see is clearly accurate; it is already happening.

        We have ignited the atmosphere!

        Calm down folks. Work for evolution and the survival of life.

    • Arizonan Arizonan

      I don’t think Arnie has any interest in protecting an industry he knows to be inherently dangerous. I know he is hanging on to the SFP explosion theory, even though it now appears the NRC think the hydrogen explosion blew the top off the containment as well….the explosion on March 14 at #3 is in fact very different from the other explosions….it goes straight up, and it LOOKS right for a criticality – mushroom cloud and all. Will we ever know for sure if the criticality was in the SFP or the reactor? Or perhaps that the reactor hydrogen explosion caused a criticality in SFP? That BOTH happened on that day? How will we ever know for sure? But why is the #3 pool still holding water, if that in fact is so?

  • Sickputer

    I look upon it as a yet unexplained event as to the explosion and yet it does resemble a nuclear explosion. Time and secrets from Tepco will reveal most of the puzzle. It is not so much WHAT happened, but what are the current ramifications.

    My criticisms

    • What I choose to go by are the likening photo’s of Chernobyl and at Fuka after the explosion’s and comparing the evidence of similar destruction to buildings to draw a conclusion as to !

  • Sickputer

    Sorry.. IPhone follies and little sleep. I’ll fire up big boy in a bit and try again.

  • BreadAndButter BreadAndButter

    I particularly love the subtle hint of the “expect the unexpected” poster behind Arnie.

  • Whoopie Whoopie

    decommissi­oning process
    “Cleaning,­” “waiting,” and “dismantli­ng”
    Has to be done SIMULTANEO­USLY?
    HOw will this EVER be achieved?!?!?

    • Whoopie Whoopie

      The standard decommissi­oning process entails six major steps: 1. Remove spent fuel rods, 2. Remove radioactiv­e materials that have become affixed to reactor pipes and containers­, 3. Wait for radiation levels to go down with time, 4. Dismantle reactors and other internal vessels and pipes, 5. Dismantle the reactor buildings, and 6. Make the site into a vacant lot.

      • Whoopie Whoopie


      • Pallas89juno Pallas89juno

        Whoopie: I agree that appears to be the standard procedure. Unfortunately, we’ll all be dead before the end of #3. Hence, the need to overthrow the status quo and release the creative solution making of the masses that insiders will refuse to entertain or utilize in their always efforts to reduce their corporate and personal liability.

    • Hot Tuna Hot Tuna

      What they are doing is basically, in the best case scenario, is just moving Fukushima Daichi to somewhere else in Japan.

  • Whoopie Whoopie


  • Hot Tuna Hot Tuna

    Hot ash near Tokyo (Chiba) almost as high in Cesium as Fukushima.

  • Kan: Central storage plant planned in Fukushima
    Prime Minister Naoto Kan has informed the governor of Fukushima Prefecture of a plan to build a central storage plant to temporarily manage nuclear waste, including contaminated soil.
    At a meeting in Fukushima City on Saturday, Governor Yuhei Sato responded that he was troubled to hear about such a plan so suddenly.
    He asked the government to take responsible action, as the plan would be extremely serious for the prefecture and relevant municipalities …

    Will be a monumental task with water table and quakes,liquefactions of earth in area’s, where ever this is designed to be built remember even in a solid rock mountain was not deemed to be safe for our own disposal of radioactive materials ! Storage, Another time bomb ?

  • Hot Tuna Hot Tuna

    They just need to admit the all of Honshu will be little more than a waste disposal site.

  • selfsovereign



    35 seconds in…………

  • selfsovereign

    Amazing youtube page.

    Japanese tepco press conferences, japanese citizen testimonials and more, all with subtitles.


  • Sickputer

    What I really would have preferred from Arnie was a simpler long term estimate of what the scenarios might be. Keep it so simple even a grandma can understand…even if you are guessing, but label that as such.

    My assessment of the spent fuel rod damage reports from Tepco:

    Unit 4 burned off so much excess debris-related radiation in air releases and released so many tons of contaminated fire hose water as this toxic brew gushed out the side of the huge Unit 4 building holes.

    Most of that toxicity is in the ocean or spread across Japan by the winds. The spent fuel rod ponds (or what remains of the ponds) still have a nasty bite left though…and with spent fuel rod damage finally “confirmed” (no surprise there eh?) the future containment and cleanup will be much exponentially more hazardous.

    What do I mean? I’ll spell it out in laymen’s terms since I try to interpret what I know rather than scare people with big terms of trillions of this and that…etc… I am not a nuclear engineer, just a researcher with acquired knowledge spread across many disciplines.

    When fuel rods in nice neat racks in a cooling pond are “damaged” they become disintegrated clumps of stuck together rod fragments.

    The process started when the ponds went dry and the zirconium alloy covering melted on the long skinny rods exposing the uranium pellets which began toxic disintegration.

    Now the ponds and some ejected debris on the plant grounds have irregular shapes of active uranium and these clumps can’t be easily handled by crane operations to extract and possibly remove.

    This action is probably impossible anyway because they are so dangerously hot humans must stay a safe distance away. The smaller amounts of ground rod debris have been attacked with tank bulldozers and cranes and some of this possibly has been incinerated in some very risky operations which may not have the intended effects Japan needed.

    High level radioactivity is impossible to destroy with incineration, it just concentrates toxins released from the filter systems which are overwhelmed and respreads the radiation anew to the wind.

    So what are the long term ramifications for the plant complex? More exchanges of water for a very long period of time… years.

    Hopefully the new heat exchangers are working better than the former feed and bleed of the fire hose injections and water gushing out, but as the water is circulated at the fuel pond areas (some more intact than others, some virtually a sieve) the hot water must continue to be treated and new water injected. For years.

    Nasty worst case scenarios as I see it:

    1. The new heat exchangers become compromised with filter clogs of cesium and other deadly byproducts just like the former feed and bleed operations of the firehose water operations. Radioactive releases begin resteaming badly and feed and bleed processes are re-initiated. Polluted water becomes more serious.

    2. A major earthquake collapses the buildings and with it the fuel rod debris piles become impossible to adequately cool thus leading to a terrible release of radiation into sea and air.

    3. The unknown factor of the melt-out coriums at 1, 2, and 3 produce hydrovolcanic eruptions that could also topple the building or produce a China Syndrome situation where the workers flee and radiation releases becomes raging out of control.

    Best case scenarios:

    1. They cover the plant ground fissures and danger zones with thousands of tons of borax to try and stop the corium explosions. Water treatment systems are enhanced with multiple filtering systems.

    2. If scientifically feasible build a massive concrete tomb like Chernobyl. This will conservatively cost 1 to 2 trillion US dollars in my estimate to entomb such a large span of 4 reactors, possibly 5 and 6 also if they are worse than we have been told.

    3. Begin a massive process of soil reclamation across Japan with plantings of fibrous plants (hemp and sunflowers) and incinerate the grown crops in regional waste incinerators and encase the sludge in clay-lined pits or other inert subsoil areas.

    This cleanup will take 3-5 years for the first stage and could remove the majority of soil contamination. Food crops will have to be imported to feed Japanese people in the meantime which sounds incredible as I write it, but what other option?

    The cost of this project is in my estimation 5 to 10 trillion US dollars over 5 years. There is no guarantee the land will be able to produce safe crops even after 5 years, but barring total island evacuation it is the only option I can suggest.

    It is grim to read such prognostications and I apologize if I have offended anyone. And you can believe or disbelieve this comment in the same spirit for how much it cost you…nothing.

    But the difference between me and the bureaucrats is I actually verbalize scenarios and I am not afraid to offer advice and positive suggestions.

    Take care and blessings to Japan!

    • Whoopie Whoopie

      FAVING that comment Sick. Worst or Best case scenarios BOTH TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND A SICK AND DYING POPULATION. Horrific. TY

  • Incinerator dust and ash with too much radioactive cesium to allow it to be buried has been found at 42 facilities in Tokyo, Chiba, Iwate and three other prefectures as well as Fukushima, the Environment Ministry said Saturday.
    The result of a survey of 469 facilities in 16 prefectures in northeastern and eastern Japan since late June was reported as a panel of experts at the ministry considers how to allow dust and ash containing over 8,000 becquerels of cesium per kilogram to be buried.
    The government has already decided to …

    • Heart of the Rose Heart of the Rose

      Perhaps..he thinks we do not care about their hard work..we do…very much so..
      … If this is a threat from Tepco … if he wants us to be silent about the conditions of Fukushima..it’s not going to happen.

  • Jebus Jebus

    One tiny pixel of light in the darkness…

    Stooge Media Wipes Japan’s Radioactive Horror from Minds of Americans
    Tim King Salem-News.com
    Aug-25-2011 19:07

    Maybe there are no easy answers, but why would a U.S. newspaper boldly lie about the daily Hell of Fukushima? Oh right, nuclear business interests…

    (SALEM, Ore.) – I was horrified when one of my best Fukushima contacts, Karin Rougeau, sent a link to our newsroom from a southern newspaper (An establishment that dates back to 1877), falsely describing the grueling circumstances in Fukushima:

    Northeast Japan improving since disaster
    By: Don Thomason – The Sentinel-Record –
    Published: 08/25/2011

    Improving? Not at all, in fact the truth is wholly opposite. What words descrribe journalists who seek to lie about hundreds of thousands of children living in a radioactive nightmare in the Fukushima prefecture? I felt like I was reading some propaganda trash – the kind America carried as regular fare in the 1940’s. In those days newspaper people simply made it up, has that changed or not?

    Ignorance is bliss, fine, not here though. It may serve the average Joe reading his Arkansas paper, but I’m stopping it dead in its tracks here, and now. I am not giving that story I referenced above the dignity of a live link, but I assume you can find it by searching the title, if you care. It is pure fluff designed to convince Americans that the scene in Japan is entirely different than it really is. Oh, and you have to be a ‘member’ of this paper in order to see the whole story, to me that is capitalism twisted into overdrive.

    The article quotes a Deputy Consul-General from Japan named Shigenobu Kobayashi, saying, “Four months have passed and the situation is getting better and better. For instance, Sendai-city opened an evacuation center and many people came there – about 100,000 – but already almost all people have their own temporary apartments or something, right now. But, it’s still a most serious situation.”


    Salem-News.com will continue this coverage and we only find it sad that we are unique in conveying this immensely important truth. God bless the people of Japan in their time of crisis.


    It will take a second… a second the children of Fukushima do not have ——> http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/evacuate_fukushima/

    And Moonkai’s video is posted at the bottom of the page…

    Thank you Moonkai, There is a place in heaven reserved for you….

    And as for Rod Adams, who posted a comment:
    May your tortured sick soul burn forever in the nuclear hell that you support so ignorantly.


  • “radiation shielded shelter”,where nuc workers take rests.

    Nuc workers were smoking and taking rests without mask but his Geiger counter started beeping immediately.It was 18 uSv/h.
    Some of the nuc workers passed out on the floor because of over working or fatigue or both of them. He also met a lot of the workers who have been to near 10 Sv/h point.
    Workers work for 1 hour and rest for 1 hour.Repeat this cycle for …

    • Sickputer

      So the Tepco plant workers try to save their country and by extension the world from global contamination by working 3 clock hours a day.

      I do not say this to denigrate their efforts. The heat and radiation on premises is a death trap. I would think most onsite workers know that and accept their jobs as a form of national sacrificial harikari which is not quickly accomplished or perhaps even fully understood.

      It is necessary to point out the difference between the Russian response of 800,000 workers who worked 15 minutes at a time and were released from duties for a year. Still, even with such small time blocks they were essentially dead men and women walking. Many went away undocumented for their future illnesses and early deaths.

      The Japanese government is also showing little interest in keep good statistics on how their work force ends up from what I have observed.

      Most Russians were ordered in as to put it frankly, slaves for the heroic work they were conscripted to perform. The world was saved by their actions for their era.

      And yet we don’t have the same government response from the Japanese. No offense intended, but they don’t have a strong enough government or military to match the Russian response.

      Time is such a factor and the Japanese are doomed to fail with such a small work force and their ability to work such few hours.

      This is very depressing for the Japanese and also for the countries of the world who face such a dire future with radioactive fallout that in the coming months and years will approach the scale of fallout from a massive thermonuclear war. From a single plant! Why? Becuase it is far more than a single plant because of the amount of fuel that is compromised. It is 100 plants in 1 compared to plants 50 years ago.

      No wrecked or bombed cities, just an invisible toxic force in the environment that might kill hundreds of millions of people if not billions. Slowly and painfully in most cases, stretching thin the health care facilities of the world.

      We are all potential global nuclear victims from a colossal civilian blunder in which missiles were never fired.

      The continuing tragedy is that without a nuclear freeze of civilian plants there will be more Fukushima type accidents that will accelerate the global death rate, perhaps to the point of mankind surviving only in pockets of mutant survivors.

    • “Nuc workers were smoking…” Of course that’s what will be blamed on their final demise.

  • Sickputer

    We see often estimates of how Fukushima compares with Chernobyl. The government for a long time said it was 10 or 15% as bad as Chernobyl. That figure is not going to survive the test of time.

    Now there are the widely disseminated estimates of 168 Hiroshima bombs for Fukushima with the sidenote that nuclear plants release far more dangerous long term types of radiation and those toxic releases are an order of magnitude longer lasting than a bomb. Comparing tart cherries to big pineapples.

    So what were the Chernobyl comparisons to Hiroshima bombs? I have read several…one lowball and one much larger:

    The lowball estimate is 15 Hiroshima bombs:



    […] The release of radiation from the Chernobyl power plant gives scientists an idea of what the effects would be on the environment in a small nuclear war. The amount of radiation released at Chernobyl would be equivalent to the detonation of about a dozen atomic bombs at an altitude that would cause maximum blast damage. […]

    The highball estimate is 400 Hiroshima bombs by a Washington DC doctor:


    […] AMY GOODMAN: And this figure that the Chernobyl blast was 400 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, could you explain that?

    DR. JEFF PATTERSON: Well, it’s a little difficult, because the bomb was exploded a thousand feet in the air, and so it was a one-time dose of radiation. The thermal energy initially killed about 100,000 people, and subsequently 100,000 or so more have died from the effects of the radiation and other injuries. And so, the force of the blast is essentially what we’re talking about here and also the radiation effect. And I think the fact is that more radiation has been released from the Chernobyl plant, and that’s, I think, where the figure of the 400 times more powerful comes from.[…]

    SP: So there you have it…a small scale nuclear war at one end of the spectrum and perhaps approaching a near global nuclear disaster at the other end of the spectrum.

    Fukushima has not yet unleashed everything it has to offer so the final tally is going to have to wait a few months or years. But at the rate it’s going it could well be the shocker of modern civilization.

    Who would have suspected a single nuclear plant could have such global implications on human health? Apparently not enough of the people who built the toxic plants.

    Certainly the vast majority of the world’s population is blissfully unaware of the dangers that lurk in the air, water,and food they partake.

    The governments would like to keep them that way so they can control them easier.

    • stock stock@hawaii.rr.com

      They have at least 2.5 million pounds of uranium products there. 8 pounds of uranium stuff can make a bomb.

      Moment of recognition, a 7th grader would understand this mean deep kimchee

  • Heart of the Rose Heart of the Rose

    We will never get the real numbers..of the children born with birth defects.
    Unfortunately..the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima..further instilled this very controversial stance.
    Last time… they were victims of an opposing party..this time it is by their own hand.
    The Japanese government is corrupt to the point of insane.

  • StillJill StillJill

    Yeah,…”to the point of insanity”,…and three steps past! IMO.

  • StillJill StillJill

    To them, ‘denial’ is a river in Egypt.

  • DUDe DisasterInterpretationDissorder

    Talking about rivers.
    Citate from Tony Cliff 1917-2000 about the potential power of the sheeple over the elite : If we all spit together we can drown the bastards ! 😉

  • catweazel

    and this slurry gets cleaned? 100.000+ tons (1 Ton = 1000 l ) multiplied with 220 million bequerel makes a bit more than the already admitted 1 -10 terabequerel complete emiisions? or is my math wrong or is the ignorance factor for all the other ways radioactivity might leave the place to high

  • catweazel

    i guess plastic piping will be worn out weekly regular

  • catweazel

    anyway… to the red forest… seems wildlife enjoys dehumanizezd soil. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Forest “The nature of the area seems to have not only survived, but flourished due to significant reduction of human impact. The zone has become a “Radiological Reserve”, a classic example of an involuntary park. There were thought to be cases of mutant deformity in animals of the Red Forest, but none have been proven, except partial albinism in swallows. Currently, there is concern about contamination of the soil with Strontium-90 and Caesium-137, which have half-lives of about 30 years. The highest levels of Caesium-137 are found in the surface layers of the soil where they are absorbed by plants, and insects living there today. Some scientists fear that radioactivity will affect the land for the next several generations”

    • “none have been proven”
      They on the most part more likely do not survive because of deformaty’s !

    • Half-Life is a misleading term. HAZARDOUS-To-Life is a better descriptor.

      Hazardous-To-Life is calculated by taking the Half-Life times ten.

      –> HL x 10 = Hazardous-To-Life time frame

      So… for Cesium-137 and Strontium 90, the soil that’s been impacted will remain hazardous to life for approximately 300 YEARS!!! (That’s a lot of generations.) This is not ‘fear it’s ‘fact’.

      • Sickputer

        Or perhaps in the case of cesium the earth may need 1800 years for land to be “safe” for humans, six times longer previously thought:


        […] ..scientists have calculated that what they call cesium’s “ecological half-life” — the time for half the cesium to disappear from the local environment — is between 180 and 320 years. […]

  • James Tekton James Tekton

    Here is a story that nails it on the head. You want to know the crux and of all the problems, here it is in plain and simple English. Please read it and pass it on. Let this goes viral!

    From Zerohedge:


    545 vs. 300,000,000 People

    – By Charlie Reese

    Politicians are the only people in the world who create problems and then campaign against them.

    Have you ever wondered, if both the Democrats and the Republicans are against deficits, WHY do we have deficits?

    Have you ever wondered, if all the politicians are against inflation and high taxes, WHY do we have inflation and high taxes?

    You and I don’t propose a federal budget. The President does.

    You and I don’t have the Constitutional authority to vote on appropriations. The House of Representatives does.

    You and I don’t write the tax code, Congress does.

    You and I don’t set fiscal policy, Congress does.

    You and I don’t control monetary policy, the Federal Reserve Bank does.

    One hundred senators, 435 congressmen, one President, and nine Supreme Court justices equates to 545 human beings out of the 300 million are directly, legally, morally, and individually responsible for the domestic problems that plague this country.

    I excluded the members of the Federal Reserve Board because that problem was created by the Congress. In 1913, Congress delegated its Constitutional duty to provide a sound currency to a federally chartered, but private, central bank.

    I excluded all the special interests and lobbyists for a sound reason. They have no legal authority. They have no ability to coerce a senator, a congressman, or a President to do one cotton-picking thing. I don’t care if they offer a politician $1 million dollars in cash. The politician has the power to accept or reject it. No matter what the lobbyist promises, it is the legislator’s responsibility to determine how he votes.

    Those 545 human beings spend much of their energy convincing you that what they did is not their fault. They cooperate in this common con regardless of party

    What separates a politician from a normal human being is an excessive amount of gall. No normal human being would have the gall of a Speaker, who stood up and criticized the President for creating deficits. The President can only propose a budget. He cannot force the Congress to accept it.

    The Constitution, which is the supreme law of the land, gives sole responsibility to the House of Representatives for originating and approving appropriations and taxes. Who is the speaker of the House? John Boehner. He is the leader of the majority party. He and fellow House members, not the President, can approve any budget they want. If the President vetoes it, they can pass it over his veto if they agree to.

    It seems inconceivable to me that a nation of 300 million cannot replace 545 people who stand convicted — by present facts — of incompetence and irresponsibility. I can’t think of a single domestic problem that is not traceable directly to those 545 people. When you fully grasp the plain truth that 545 people exercise the power of the federal government, then it must follow that what exists is what they want to exist.

    If the tax code is unfair, it’s because they want it unfair.

    If the budget is in the red, it’s because they want it in the red.

    If the Army & Marines are in Iraq and Afghanistan it’s because they want them in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    If they do not receive social security but are on an elite retirement plan not available to the people, it’s because they want it that way.

    There are no insoluble government problems.

    Do not let these 545 people shift the blame to bureaucrats, whom they hire and whose jobs they can abolish; to lobbyists, whose gifts and advice they can reject; to regulators, to whom they give the power to regulate and from whom they can take this power. Above all, do not let them con you into the belief that there exists disembodied mystical forces like “the economy”,”inflation,” or “politics” that prevent them from doing what they take an oath to do.

    Those 545 people, and they alone, are responsible.

    They, and they alone, have the power.

    They, and they alone, should be held accountable by the people who are their bosses.

    Provided the voters have the gumption to manage their own employees.

    We should vote all of them out of office and clean up their mess.

    Charlie Reese is a former columnist of the Orlando Sentinel Newspaper.
    What you do with this article now that you have read it is up to you. This might be funny if it weren’t so true. Be sure to read all the way to the end:

    Tax his land,
    Tax his bed,
    Tax the table,
    At which he’s fed.

    Tax his tractor,
    Tax his mule,
    Teach him taxes
    Are the rule.

    Tax his work,
    Tax his pay,
    He works for
    peanuts anyway!

    Tax his cow,
    Tax his goat,
    Tax his pants,
    Tax his coat.

    Tax his ties,
    Tax his shirt,
    Tax his work,
    Tax his dirt.

    Tax his tobacco,
    Tax his drink,
    Tax him if he
    Tries to think.

    Tax his cigars,
    Tax his beers,
    If he cries
    Tax his tears.

    Tax his car,
    Tax his gas,
    Find other ways
    Taxes to pass

    Tax all he has
    Then let him know
    That you won’t be done
    Till he has no dough.

    When he screams and hollers;
    Then tax him some more,
    Tax him till
    He’s good and sore.

    Then tax his coffin,
    Tax his grave,
    Tax the sod in
    Which he’s laid…

    Put these words
    Upon his tomb,
    ‘Taxes drove me
    to my doom…’

    When he’s gone,
    Do not relax,
    Its time to apply
    The inheritance tax.

    Accounts Receivable Tax
    Building Permit Tax
    CDL license Tax
    Cigarette Tax
    Corporate Income Tax
    Dog License Tax
    Excise Taxes
    Federal Income Tax
    Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA)
    Fishing License Tax
    Food License Tax
    Fuel Permit Tax
    Gasoline Tax (currently 44.75 cents per gallon)
    Gross Receipts Tax
    Hunting License Tax
    Inheritance Tax
    Inventory Tax
    IRS Interest Charges IRS Penalties (tax on top of tax)
    Liquor Tax
    Luxury Taxes
    Marriage License Tax
    Medicare Tax
    Personal Property Tax
    Property Tax
    Real Estate Tax
    Service Charge Tax
    Social Security Tax
    Road Usage Tax
    Recreational Vehicle Tax
    Sales Tax
    School Tax
    State Income Tax
    State Unemployment Tax (SUTA)
    Telephone Federal Excise Tax
    Telephone Federal Universal Service Fee Tax
    Telephone Federal, State and Local Surcharge Taxes
    Telephone Minimum Usage Surcharge Tax
    Telephone Recurring and Nonrecurring Charges Tax
    Telephone State and Local Tax
    Telephone Usage Charge Tax
    Utility Taxes
    Vehicle License Registration Tax
    Vehicle Sales Tax
    Watercraft Registration Tax
    Well Permit Tax
    Workers Compensation Tax

    Not one of these taxes existed 100 years ago, and our nation was the most prosperous in the world. We had absolutely no national debt, had the largest middle class in the world, and Mom stayed home to raise the kids.

    What in the heck happened? Can you spell ‘politicians?’

    I hope this goes around THE USA at least 545 times! YOU can help it get there!!!





    ADD ME / Profile… https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100002275330788

    Thats my ghost / Nuclear profile…

    In early march we established a group called: Banned by the IAEA. We were the first anti nuclear responders, that I am aware of pestering the iaea’s TIME LAPSE LIE POLICY…

    Our groups profiles were all brought together, from the iaea individually Banning each and everyone of us from commenting on the facebook IAEA page… Note this was For simply providing information that conflicted with their time lapse of information / AKA lies…

    In lamen terms. We made it difficult for them (the iaea) to lie, to You (the people)…

    So If you add that profile to your face book we have a chronology of articles and events taking place from March 11th until now…

    The group is not a public group, So It is impossible to find without adding me… Srry. But if your interested… ~BE SURE TO WRITE A MESSAGE TO TELL ME TO ADD YOU TO THE GROUP BANNED BY THE IAEA…~

    There are now over 800 Articles on the groups main page… most of which point out the LIES implemented by the IAEA. The individuals in the group are all amazing (up to speed people) that have a good bearing on the events that have taken place in fukushima. As they and myself have been constantly watching the situation since march 11th.

    We also have two Japanese national diggers, that update us with / translations (during breaking events). So the people there are at par with this community.

    So if you facebook. Be sure to add the group. 😉
    Cheers EMMY.

    • This is a link to the group… Which I am unsure if you can add yourself directly too??? https://www.facebook.com/groups/140342312702633/

      • http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110828x3.html

        Cesium in incinerator dust across East Japan
        High levels of cesium isotopes are cropping up in dust at 42 incineration plants in seven prefectures, including Chiba and Iwate, an Environment Ministry survey of the Kanto and Tohoku regions shows.

        According to the report, released late Saturday, the highest cesium levels in the dust ranged from 95,300 becquerels in Fukushima Prefecture and 70,800 becquerels in Chiba Prefecture to 30,000 becquerels in Iwate Prefecture.

        But even the lower levels in the dust exceeded 8,000 becquerels per kilogram in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma and Tokyo.

        The 16-prefecture survey covered 469 incinerator operators in Tohoku and Kanto from late June, and was reported to a panel of experts at the ministry that is discussing how to safely bury incinerator ash an dust with cesium levels above 8,000 becquerels per kilogram.

        Local governments have been instructed to temporarily store their ash and dust at disposal sites until the panel reaches a conclusion.

        The ministry said it will ask the prefectures to continue monitoring radiation levels in the material.

        Incinerator ash containing cesium was detected at seven facilities in Fukushima Prefecture, the report said.

        The Environment Ministry asked prefectures to monitor cesium levels after dust with 9,740 becquerels per kilogram was found at an incineration plant in Tokyo’s Edogawa Ward in June. Before that, the only prefectures that had collected and released such data were Gunma and Ibaraki.

        The other prefectures that took part in the survey were Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, Saitama, Kanagawa, Niigata, Yamanashi, Nagano and Shizuoka.

        • Why the Fukushima disaster is worse than Chernobyl
          Japan has been slow to admit the scale of the meltdown. But now the truth is coming out. David McNeill reports from Soma City

          Yoshio Ichida is recalling the worst day of his 53 years: 11 March, when the sea swallowed up his home and killed his friends. The Fukushima fisherman was in the bath when the huge quake hit and barely made it to the open sea in his boat in the 40 minutes before the 15-metre tsunami that followed. When he got back to port, his neighbourhood and nearly everything else was gone. “Nobody can remember anything like this,” he says.

          Now living in a refugee centre in the ruined coastal city of Soma, Mr Ichida has mourned the 100 local fishermen killed in the disaster and is trying to rebuild his life with his colleagues. Every morning, they arrive at the ruined fisheries co-operative building in Soma port and prepare for work. Then they stare out at the irradiated sea, and wait. “Some day we know we’ll be allowed to fish again. We all want to believe that.”

          This nation has recovered from worse natural – and manmade – catastrophes. But it is the triple meltdown and its aftermath at the Fukushima nuclear power plant 40km down the coast from Soma that has elevated Japan into unknown, and unknowable, terrain. Across the northeast, millions of people are living with its consequences and searching for a consensus on a safe radiation level that does not exist. Experts give bewilderingly different assessments of its dangers.

          Related articles
          Japanese leadership ballot set to split ruling party
          Search the news archive for more stories
          Some scientists say Fukushima is worse than the 1986 Chernobyl accident, with which it shares a maximum level-7 rating on the sliding scale of nuclear disasters. One of the most prominent of them is Dr Helen Caldicott, an Australian physician and long time anti-nuclear activist who warns of “horrors to come” in Fukushima.

          Chris Busby, a professor at the University of Ulster known for his alarmist views, generated controversy during a Japan visit last month when he said the disaster would result in more than 1 million deaths. “Fukushima is still boiling its radionuclides all over Japan,” he said. “Chernobyl went up in one go. So Fukushima is worse.”

          On the other side of the nuclear fence are the industry friendly scientists who insist that the crisis is under control and radiation levels are mostly safe. “I believe the government and Tokyo Electric Power [Tepco, the plant’s operator] are doing their best,” said Naoto Sekimura, vice-dean of the Graduate School of Engineering at the University of Tokyo. Mr Sekimura initially advised residents near the plant that a radioactive disaster was “unlikely” and that they should stay “calm”, an assessment he has since had to reverse.

          Slowly, steadily, and often well behind the curve, the government has worsened its prognosis of the disaster. Last Friday, scientists affiliated with the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency said the plant had released 15,000 terabecquerels of cancer-causing Cesium, equivalent to about 168 times the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the event that ushered in the nuclear age. (Professor Busby says the release is at least 72,000 times worse than Hiroshima).

          Caught in a blizzard of often conflicting information, many Japanese instinctively grope for the beacons they know. Mr Ichida and his colleagues say they no longer trust the nuclear industry or the officials who assured them the Fukushima plant was safe. But they have faith in government radiation testing and believe they will soon be allowed back to sea.

          That’s a mistake, say sceptics, who note a consistent pattern of official lying, foot-dragging and concealment. Last week, officials finally admitted something long argued by its critics: that thousands of people with homes near the crippled nuclear plant may not be able to return for a generation or more. “We can’t rule out the possibility that there will be some areas where it will be hard for residents to return to their homes for a long time,” said Yukio Edano, the government’s top government spokesman. “We are very sorry.”

          Last Friday, hundreds of former residents from Futaba and Okuma, the towns nearest the plant, were allowed to visit their homes – perhaps for the last time – to pick up belongings. Wearing masks and radiation suits, they drove through the 20km contaminated zone around the plant, where hundreds of animals have died and rotted in the sun, to find kitchens and living rooms partly reclaimed by nature. “It’s hard to believe we ever lived here,” one former resident told NHK.

          Several other areas northwest of the plant have become atomic ghost towns after being ordered to evacuate – too late, say many residents, who believe they absorbed dangerous quantities of radiation in the weeks after the accident. “We’ve no idea when we can come back,” says Katsuzo Shoji, who farmed rice and cabbages and kept a small herd of cattle near Iitate, a picturesque village about 40km from the plant.

          Although it is outside the exclusion zone, the village’s mountainous topography meant radiation, carried by wind and rain, lingered, poisoning crops, water and school playgrounds.

          The young, the wealthy, mothers and pregnant women left for Tokyo or elsewhere. Most of the remaining 6000 people have since evacuated, after the government accepted that safe radiation limits had been exceeded.

          Mr Shoji, 75, went from shock to rage, then despair when the government told him he would have to destroy his vegetables, kill his six cows and move with his wife Fumi, 73, to an apartment in Koriyama, about 20km away. “We’ve heard five, maybe 10 years but some say that’s far too optimistic,” he says, crying. “Maybe I’ll be able to come home to die.” He was given initial compensation of one million yen (£7,900) by Tepco, topped up with 350,000 yen from the government.

          It is the fate of people outside the evacuation zones, however, that causes the most bitter controversy. Parents in Fukushima City, 63km from the plant, have banded together to demand that the government do more to protect about 100,000 children. Schools have banned soccer and other outdoor sports. Windows are kept closed. “We’ve just been left to fend for ourselves,” says Machiko Sato, a grandmother who lives in the city. “It makes me so angry.”

          Many parents have already sent their children to live with relatives or friends hundreds of kilometres away. Some want the government to evacuate the entire two million population of Fukushima Prefecture. “They’re demanding the right to be able to evacuate,” says anti-nuclear activist Aileen Mioko Smith, who works with the parents. “In other words, if they evacuate they want the government to support them.”

          So far, at least, the authorities say that is not necessary. The official line is that the accident at the plant is winding down and radiation levels outside of the exclusion zone and designated “hot spots” are safe.

          But many experts warn that the crisis is just beginning. Professor Tim Mousseau, a biological scientist who has spent more than a decade researching the genetic impact of radiation around Chernobyl, says he worries that many people in Fukushima are “burying their heads in the sand.” His Chernobyl research concluded that biodiversity and the numbers of insects and spiders had shrunk inside the irradiated zone, and the bird population showed evidence of genetic defects, including smaller brain sizes.

          “The truth is that we don’t have sufficient data to provide accurate information on the long-term impact,” he says. “What we can say, though, is that there are very likely to be very significant long-term health impact from prolonged exposure.”

          In Soma, Mr Ichida says all the talk about radiation is confusing. “All we want to do is get back to work. There are many different ways to die, and having nothing to do is one of them.”

          Economic cost
          Fukushima: Japan has estimated it will cost as much as £188bn to rebuild following the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis.
          Chernobyl There are a number of estimates of the economic impact, but thetotal cost is thought to be about £144bn.

          Fukushima: workers are allowed to operate in the crippled plant up to a dose of 250mSv (millisieverts).
          Chernobyl: People exposed to 350mSv were relocated. In most countries the maximum annual dosage for a worker is 20mSv. The allowed dose for someone living close to a nuclear plant is 1mSv a year.

          Death toll
          Fukushima: Two workers died inside the plant. Some scientists predict that one million lives will be lost to cancer.
          Chernobyl: It is difficult to say how many people died on the day of the disaster because of state security, but Greenpeace estimates that 200,000 have died from radiation-linked cancers in the 25 years since the accident.

          Exclusion zone
          Fukushima: Tokyo initially ordered a 20km radius exclusion zone around the plant
          Chernobyl: The initial radius of the Chernobyl zone was set at 30km – 25 years later it is still largely in place.

          Fukushima: Tepco’s share price has collapsed since the disaster largely because of the amount it will need to pay out, about £10,000 a person
          Chernobyl: Not a lot. It has been reported that Armenian victims of the disaster were offered about £6 each in 1986

          Fukushima: The UN’s Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs reported bilateral aid worth $95m
          Chernobyl: 12 years after the disaster, the then Ukrainian president, Leonid Kuchma, complained that his country was still waiting for international help.

      • dharmasyd dharmasyd

        Sorry Tacoma. I don’t do Facebook. I can’t even tell you how many friends I have told that I refuse to be friends on Facebook.

        Surely we can find better places to spread our mssgs!

        But let me ask: Why would you wish to be on Facebook anyway?

        • Its an information channel. Its only a threat if you upload your own information.

          But the iaea has a facebook profile so I used facebook to infiltrate their organization… / for fukushima updates…

          • matina matina

            Am i understanding correct that you are saying that the iaea updates its members on the Fokushima issue over Facebook and you infiltrated and we should join your banned group? Sorry but thats really funny

            • Matina. Besides criticizing good people creatively trying to address this situation what exactly are you doing? Present an alternative to Tacoma’s facebook thing if you have a better idea.

              But I don’t think you do. That being the case stop being a troll.

    • stock stock@hawaii.rr.com

      Sounds great just don’t do Facebook for privacy reasons.

    • matina matina

      the information you are giving here is realy contradictory
      you say the group wants to inform “you” the people meanwhile its not a public groop so actually people can not read this info unless in the club
      then you want our personal facebook page because we somehow should trust you as you are so friendly and nice to keep all info in youre little club
      if you really cared about people you would be SPREADING the word
      as for ‘infiltrating’ the IAEA …..that is just laughable
      sorry if i sound agressive and to tell you the trouth in no way have you ever contributed anything to ENENEWS that was groundbreaking…strange really as you had so much inside information you did not share much

  • Arizonan Arizonan

    Please see:

    Blog by woman in Japan – she is translating all the tweets like xdr – incredibly valuable resource if you really want to know how all of this is actually affecting the people of Japan.

  • The Danger of Spent Nuclear Fuel
    The spent fuel pools at Units 3 and 4 at the crippled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear complex are exposed to the open sky and might be draining. The radioactive dose rates coming off the pools appear to be life-threatening. Lead-shielded helicopters trying to dump water over the pools/reactors could not get close enough to make much difference because of the dangerous levels of radiation.

    If the spent fuel is exposed, the zirconium cladding encasi ng the spent fuel can catch fire releasing potentially catastrophic amounts of radiation, particularly cesium-137 (Here’s an article I wrote in January 2002 in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists about spent fuel pool dangers.)

    In October 2002, Washington Gov. Christine Gregoire, serving at that time as her state’s attorney general, organized a group letter to Congress signed by her and 26 of her counterparts across the nation. In it, they requested greater safeguards for reactor spent-fuel pools. The letter urged “enhanced protections for one of the most vulnerable components of a nuclear power plant its spent fuel pools.” It was met with silence.

    In January 2003, my colleagues and I warned that a drained spent fuel pool in the U.S. could lead to a catastrophic fire that would result in long-term land contamination substantially worse than what the Chernobyl accident unleashed. An area around the Chernobyl site roughly half the size of New Jersey continues to be considered uninhabitable.

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the nuclear energy industry strongly disagreed. Congress then asked the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to referee this dispute.

    In 2004, after the NRC tried unsuccessfully to suppress its report, the NAS panel agreed with our findings. The Academy panel stated that a “partially or completely drained pool could lead to a propagating zirconium cladding fire and release large quantities of radioactive materials to the environment.”

    Over the past 15 years, NRC has become too co-dependent on the industry it regulates. This has a lot to do with Congress, the nuclear industry lobby and its large amounts of money, which successfully rolled back the post Three Mile Island regulatory reforms of the early 19080s.. NRC is now much more dependent on industry self-reporting, much like what happened with the SEC and the banking industry before the economic collapse.

    U.S. reactors are each holding at least four times as much spent fuel as the individual pools at the wrecked Daiichi nuclear complex in Fukushima. According to the Energy Department, about 63,000 metric tons of spent fuel has been generated as of this year, containing approximately 12.4 billion curies. These pools contain some of the largest concentrations of radioactivity on the planet. Merely 14 percent of U.S. spent fuel is in dry storage.

    At this stage it’s critical that:

    * The NRC hold off on renewing operating licenses for nuclear reactors, given our newfound certainty that many sites in earthquake zones could experience greater destruction than previously assumed.

    * The NRC promptly require reactor owners to end the dense compaction of spent fuel, and ensure that at least 75 percent of the spent fuel in pools operating above their capacity be removed and placed into dry, hardened storage containers on site, which are more likely to withstand earthquakes.

    In our 2003 study, we estimated that it would take about 10 years to do this with existing technology, at an expense of $3.5 to $7 billion.

    ROBERT ALVAREZ, an Institute for Policy Studies senior scholar, served as senior policy adviser to the Energy Department’s secretary from 1993 to 1999. http://www.ips-dc.org

  • What about the spent fuel?
    By Robert Alvarez
    Until recently, concerns about attacks on commercial nuclear power plants focused mainly on the vulnerability of reactor containment buildings. But nuclear power plants may have a weaker link— spent fuel ponds. “Reactors are inside steel vessels surrounded by heavy structures and containment buildings,” says Gordon Thompson, senior scientist at the Institute for Resource and Security Studies. “Spent fuel pools, containing some of the largest concentrations of radioactivity on the planet, can catch fire and are in much more vulnerable buildings.”
    Public officials share Thompson’s concern. “I’m not so worried about the core; I’m worried about the spent fuel pool,” Gov. Howard Dean of Vermont told the New York Times (November 2). “There’s basically no protection there.”
    The ponds, typically rectangular or L-shaped basins about 40 feet deep, are made of reinforced concrete walls four to five feet thick and stainless steel liners. Basins without steel liners are more susceptible to cracks and corrosion. Most of the spent fuel ponds at boiling water reactors are housed in reactor buildings several stories above ground. Pools at pressurized water reactors— representing about two-thirds of all ponds—are partially or fully embedded in the ground, sometimes above tunnels or underground rooms.
    Fire and water
    Over the past 25 years, Thompson, a physicist and engineer, has worked on behalf of citizen groups and state and local governments to convince nuclear regulators in the United States and Europe that spent fuel pools pose severe risks. The most serious risk, he says, is loss of the pool water that cools and shields the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies. Water loss could expose spent fuel, leading to a catastrophic fire with consequences potentially worse than a reactor meltdown. Most U.S. reactors store spent fuel in high-density pools. If that fuel were exposed to air and steam, the zirconium cladding would react exothermically, catching fire at about 1,000 degrees Celsius. A fuel pond building would probably not survive, and the fire would likely spread to nearby pools. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concedes that such a fire cannot be extinguished; it could rage for days.
    On average, spent fuel ponds hold five to 10 times more long-lived radioactivity than a reactor core. Particularly worrisome is the large amount of cesium 137 in fuel ponds, which contain anywhere from 20 to 50 million curies of this dangerous isotope. With a half-life of 30 years, cesium 137 gives off highly penetrating radiation and is absorbed in the food chain as if it were potassium. According to the NRC, as much as 100 percent of a pool’s cesium 137 would be released into the environment in a fire.
    In comparison, the 1986 Chernobyl accident released about 40 percent of the reactor core’s 6 million curies of cesium 137 into the atmosphere, resulting in massive off-site radiation exposures. A single spent fuel pond holds more cesium 137 than was deposited by all atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Hemisphere combined.
    http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2002/jf02/jf02alvarez.html Page 1 of 4
    January/February 2002
    Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 45-47
    What about the spent fuel? | The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 3/17/04 12:33 PM
    If a fire were to break out at the Millstone Reactor Unit 3 spent fuel pond in Connecticut, it would result in a three-fold increase in background exposures. This level triggers the NRC’s evacuation requirement, and could render about 29,000 square miles of land uninhabitable, according to Thompson. Connecticut covers only about 5,000 square miles; an accident at Millstone could severely affect Long Island and even New York City.
    A 1997 report for the NRC by Brookhaven National Laboratory also found that a severe pool fire could render about 188 square miles uninhabitable, cause as many as 28,000 cancer fatalities, and cost $59 billion in damage. (The Brookhaven study relied on a different standard of uninhabitability than Thompson.) While estimates vary, “the use of a little imagination,” says Thompson, “shows that a pool fire would be a regional and national disaster of historic proportions.”
    Several events could cause a loss of pool water, including leakage, evaporation, siphoning, pumping, aircraft impact, earthquake, accidental or deliberate drop of a fuel transport cask, reactor failure, or an explosion inside or outside the pool building. Industry officials maintain that personnel would have sufficient time to provide an alternative cooling system before the spent fuel caught fire. But if the water level dropped to just a few feet above the spent fuel, the radiation doses in the pool building would be lethal.
    The procedures fuel handlers need to follow to recognize problems, repair heavily damaged equipment, and command off-site resources have yet to be formalized, much less tested. But if routine operations are any indication, not all reactors would pass muster: By the NRC’s own admission, significant temperature rises in fuel ponds have gone undetected for days.
    Old policy, older problems
    Over the years, Thompson’s persistence has paid off, and the NRC has grudgingly made important concessions. For 20 years, the NRC assumed that aged spent fuel, which has had several years for radioactive isotopes to decay, was at little risk of catching fire. But in an October 2000 study of spent fuel risks at sites where reactors were being decommissioned, the NRC conceded that “the possibility of a zirconium fire cannot be dismissed even many years after a final reactor shutdown.”
    Equipment installed to make high-density ponds safe actually exacerbates the fire danger, particularly with aged spent fuel. In high-density pools at pressurized water reactors, fuel assemblies are packed about nine to 10.5 inches apart—slightly more than the spacing inside a reactor. To compensate for the increased risk of criticality, pools have been retrofitted with enhanced water chemistry controls and neutron-absorbing panels between assemblies. The extra equipment restricts water and air circulation, creating vulnerability to systemic failures. If the equipment collapses or fails, as might occur during a terrorist attack, for example, air and water flow to exposed fuel assemblies would be obstructed, causing a fire, according to the NRC’s report. Heat would turn the remaining water into steam, which would interact with the zirconium, making the problem worse by yielding flammable and explosive hydrogen. As a result, the NRC concluded that “it is not feasible, without numerous constraints, to define a generic decay heat level (and therefore decay time) beyond which a zirconium fire is not physically possible.”
    Perhaps the most important concession was made in June 2001, when the NRC staff reported that terrorist threats against spent fuel ponds are credible and cannot be ruled out. “Until recently, the staff believed that the [design basis threat] of radiological sabotage could not cause a zirconium fire. However, [NRC’s safety policy for spent fuel storage] does not support the assertion of a lesser hazard to the public health and safety, given the possible consequences of sabotage.”
    Despite acknowledging spent fuel pond dangers, the NRC’s ability to adapt to a much more dangerous world remains to be seen. It took 10 days after the September 11 attacks before the NRC admitted that “nuclear power plants were not designed to withstand [jet airliner] crashes.” Although this statement was widely covered by the media, the NRC was just restating the results of old policy.
    In 1982, the NRC’s Atomic Safety and Licensing Board ruled that reactor owners “are not required to design against such things as . . . kamikaze dives by large airplanes. Reactors could not be effectively protected against such attacks without turning them into virtually impregnable fortresses at much higher cost.” This view is buttressed by NRC’s equally long-standing policy blocking
    http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2002/jf02/jf02alvarez.html Page 2 of 4
    What about the spent fuel? | The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 3/17/04 12:33 PM
    consideration of terrorist acts in licensing proceedings. Because acts of terrorism are unpredictable, the NRC reasons, they are not germane to safety requirements. Incredibly, a day after the September 11 attacks, the NRC ruled that concerns about terrorists raised by Georgians Against Nuclear Energy (GANE) regarding the mixing of plutonium in nuclear fuel at the Energy Department’s Savannah River Site were not valid because “GANE does not establish that terrorist acts . . . fall within the realm of ‘reasonably foreseeable’ events.”
    Running out of room
    The NRC is now reviewing from “top to bottom” its safety and security policies, “working around the clock to ensure protection of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel facilities,” NRC spokesman Victor Dricks told the Washington Post on November 1. “Everything’s on the table. I’d like to tell you that everything’s going to be okay, but I can’t do that.”
    Will more gates, guards, and guns be enough? About 40,000 tons of spent nuclear fuel are stored in pools at 110 operating and closed reactor sites across the United States, with over 2 billion curies of long-lived radioactivity. Over the next several years, the Energy Department estimates that storage space for an additional 11,000 tons of spent fuel will be needed.
    Plant owners are already lobbying for more space. For example, Connecticut’s Millstone plant has 585 fuel assemblies in its reactor Unit 3 pond. But Millstone’s owner, Dominion Nuclear Connecticut Inc., wants permission from the NRC to expand the pool’s capacity to hold 1,860 assemblies.
    Spent fuel ponds were designed to be temporary—and to store only a small fraction of what they currently hold. “Neither the AEC [now the Energy Department] nor utilities anticipated the need to store large amounts of spent fuel at operating sites,” said Millstone’s owner last October. “Large- scale commercial reprocessing never materialized in the United States. As a result, operating nuclear sites were required to cope with ever-increasing amounts of irradiated fuel. . . . This has become a fact of life for nuclear power stations.”
    The underlying assumption of NRC’s policy allowing for expanded pool storage is that some day the government will permanently dispose of it all, as required under the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act. But the Energy Department will not accept custody of spent fuel until 2010 at the earliest—if at all. Even if Energy and the Bush administration are able to overcome the formidable opposition to opening the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, there could be considerable risk in transporting thousands of shipments of highly radioactive waste.
    Storage solutions
    In light of the NRC’s admissions about spent fuel vulnerabilities, it seems it would be easier to cause an accident at a spent fuel pond than to breach and release the radioactive contents of multiple hardened concrete and steel dry storage casks. Casks and other storage alternatives would greatly reduce, or even eliminate, the risk of a pond fire. A handful of reactor owners have put only about 4 percent of the nation’s spent fuel into dry storage.
    Today, the pressure felt by reactor owners from electricity deregulation works against nuclear safety. According to a report on utility deregulation and nuclear power by the Nukem Corporation, “In an era of deregulation there will be no pool of captive customers to shoulder uneconomic operating costs or massive capital additions.” Because of deregulation, the owners of many reactors are limited liability companies with little or no cash reserves. There is no financial incentive to move wastes to safer dry storage.
    Other nations are taking spent fuel vulnerabilities very seriously. Germany is seeking ways to harden its dry-stored spent fuel in even more robust containers. France has installed anti-aircraft missiles around its spent fuel ponds at the La Hague reprocessing facility, where some 100 million curies of cesium 137 are stored. What the United States will do to protect the public from this serious nuclear vulnerability remains to be seen.
    http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/2002/jf02/jf02alvarez.html Page 3 of 4
    What about the spent fuel? | The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 3/17/04 12:33 PM
    Page 4 of 4
    The permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial reactors now seems a greater abstraction than does a terrorist strike against a nuclear power plant. Safely securing the spent fuel in crowded pools should be a public safety priority of the highest degree. If the events of September 11 have taught us anything, it is that the war against terrorism will be an unpredictable struggle. The cost of fixing America’s nuclear vulnerabilities may be high, but the price of doing too little is incalculable.
    Robert Alvarez served as a senior policy adviser in the Energy Department and is now a senior scholar at the Institute for Policy Studies.

  • Nuclear Catastrophe and Reactor Shutdown

    Paula Bronstein/Getty Images
    A glimpse of the aftermath from the largest earthquake in history and the ensuing tsunami that tore Japan apart and led to its nuclear catastrophe.
    Remember, at the heart of every nuclear reactor is a controlled environment of radioactivity and induced fission. When this environment spins out of control, the results can be catastrophic.

    For many years, the Chernobyl disaster stood as a prime worst-case example of nuclear malfunction. In 1986, the Ukrainian nuclear reactor exploded, spewing 50 tons of radioactive material into the surrounding area, contaminating millions of acres of forest. The disaster forced the evacuation of at least 30,000 people, and eventually caused thousands to die from cancer and other illnesses [source: History Channel].

    Chernobyl was poorly designed and improperly operated. The plant required constant human attention to keep the reactor from malfunctioning. Meanwhile, modern plants require constant supervision to keep from shutting down. Yet even a well-designed nuclear power plant is susceptible to natural disaster.

    On Friday, March 11, 2011, Japan suffered the largest earthquake in modern history. A programmed response at the country’s Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear facility immediately descended all of the reactor’s control rods, shutting down all fission reactions within ten minutes. Unfortunately, however, you can’t shut down all radioactivity with the flip of a switch.

    As we explored on the previous page, nuclear waste continues to generate heat years after its initial run in a power plant. Similarly, within the first few hours after a nuclear reactor shuts down, it continues to generate heat from the decay process.

    The March 2011 quake manifested a deadly tsunami, which destroyed the backup diesel generators that powered the water coolant pumps and that the facility had turned to after it couldn’t get power from Japan’s grid. These pumps circulate water through the reactor to remove decay heat. Uncirculated, both the water temperature and water pressure inside the reactor continued to rise. Furthermore, the reactor radiation began to split the water into oxygen and volatile hydrogen. The resulting hydrogen explosions breached the reactor building’s steel containment panels.

    Simply put, the Fukushima-Daiichi facility had many countermeasures in place to shut down operations in the event of severe seismic activity. They just didn’t count on losing power to their coolant pumps.

    Plants such as Japan’s Fukushima-Daiichi facility, Russia’s Chernobyl and the United States’ Three Mile Island remain a black eye for the nuclear power industry, often overshadowing some of the environmental advantages the technology has to offer. You can read more about exactly what happened in How Japan’s Nuclear Crisis Works.

    Explore the links on the next page to learn more about nuclear energy.

  • Greater Danger Lies in Spent Fuel Than in Reactors http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/world/asia/18spent.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
    Published: March 17, 2011

    Years of procrastination in deciding on long-term disposal of highly radioactive fuel rods from nuclear reactors are now coming back to haunt Japanese authorities as they try to control fires and explosions at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.
    Enlarge This Image

    Tomohiro Ohsumi/Bloomberg News
    A pre-earthquake view of fuel rods at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    1 of 7

    Status of the Nuclear Reactors
    A daily tracker of the damage at the two imperiled nuclear plants.

    Interactive Feature
    How a Reactor Shuts Down and What Happens in a Meltdown

    Radiation Spread Seen; Frantic Repairs Go On (March 18, 2011)
    Easy Fixes at Reactors in Long Run Are Elusive (March 18, 2011)
    Japan Offers Little Response to U.S. Assessment (March 18, 2011)
    Radiation Fears and Distrust Push Thousands From Homes (March 18, 2011)
    Enlarge This Image

    Andrea Salazar, Airman 1st Class/U.S. Navy
    Loading high-capacity pumps from the United States Navy for use in the effort to cool Reactor No. 3.
    Some countries have tried to limit the number of spent fuel rods that accumulate at nuclear power plants: Germany stores them in costly casks, for example, while China sends them to a desert storage compound in the western province of Gansu. But Japan, like the United States, has kept ever-larger numbers of spent fuel rods in temporary storage pools at the power plants, where they can be guarded with the same security provided for the plants.

    Figures provided by Tokyo Electric Power on Thursday show that most of the dangerous uranium at the power plant is actually in the spent fuel rods, not the reactor cores themselves.

    The electric utility said that a total of 11,125 spent fuel rod assemblies were stored at the site. That is about four times as much radioactive material as in the reactor cores combined.

    Now those temporary pools are proving the power plant’s Achilles’ heel, with the water in the pools either boiling away or leaking out of their containments, and efforts to add more water having gone awry. While spent fuel rods generate significantly less heat than newer ones do, there are strong indications that some fuel rods have begun to melt and release extremely high levels of radiation. Japanese workers struggled on Thursday to add more water to the storage pool at Reactor No. 3.

    Helicopters dropped water, only to have it scattered by strong breezes. Water cannons mounted on police trucks — equipment designed to disperse rioters — were then deployed to spray water on the pools. It is unclear if that effort worked.

    Richard T. Lahey Jr., a retired nuclear engineer who oversaw General Electric’s safety research in the early 1970s for the kind of nuclear reactors used in Fukushima, said that the zirconium cladding on the fuel rods could burst into flames if exposed to air for hours when a storage pool lost its water.

    Zirconium, once ignited, burns extremely hot and is difficult to extinguish, added Mr. Lahey, who helped write a classified report for the United States government several years ago on the vulnerabilities of storage pools at American nuclear reactors.

    Very high levels of radiation above the storage pools suggest that the water has drained in the 39-foot-deep pools to the point that the 13-foot-high fuel rod assemblies have been exposed to air for hours and are starting to melt, said Robert Albrecht, a longtime nuclear engineer who worked as a consultant to the Japanese nuclear reactor manufacturing industry in the 1980s. Under normal conditions, the rods are kept covered with 26 feet of water that is circulated to prevent it from growing too warm.

    Gregory Jaczko, the chairman of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, made the startling assertion on Wednesday that there was little or no water left in another storage pool, the one on top of Reactor No. 4, and expressed grave concern about the radiation that would be released as a result.

    The 1,479 spent fuel rod assemblies there include 548 that were removed from the reactor only in November and December to prepare the reactor for maintenance, and these may be emitting more heat than the older assemblies in other storage pools.

    Even without recirculating water, it should take many days for the water in a storage pool to evaporate, nuclear engineers said. So the rapid evaporation and even boiling of water in the storage pools now is a mystery, raising the question of whether the pools may also be leaking.

    Michael Friedlander, a former senior nuclear power plant operator who worked 13 years at three American reactors, said that storage pools typically had a liner of stainless steel three-eighths of an inch thick, and that they rested on reinforced concrete bases. So even if the liner ruptured, “unless the concrete was torn apart, there’s no place for the water to go,” he said.

    Mr. Lahey said that much of the water may have sloshed out during the earthquake. Much smaller earthquakes in California have produced heavy water losses from sloshing at storage pools there, partly because the pools are located high in reactor buildings.

    “It’s like being at the top of a flagpole, and once you start ground motion, you can easily slosh it,” he said.

    When the water in a storage pool disappears, the fuel rods’ uranium continues to heat the rods’ zirconium cladding. This causes the zirconium to oxidize, or rust, and even catch fire. The spent fuel rods have little radioactive iodine, which has a half-life of eight days and has mostly disappeared through radioactive decay once fission stopped when the rods left the reactor cores. But the spent fuel rods are still loaded with cesium and strontium that can start to escape if the fuel rods burn.

    One factor that might determine how serious the situation becomes is whether the uranium oxide pellets in the rods stay vertical even if the cladding burns off. This is possible because pellets sometimes become fused together while in the reactor. If the pellets stay standing up, then even with the water and zirconium gone, nuclear fission will not take place, Mr. Albrecht said.

    But Tokyo Electric said this week that there was a chance of “recriticality” in the storage pools — that is, the uranium in the fuel rods could resume the fission that previously took place inside the reactor, spewing out radioactive byproducts.

    Mr. Albrecht said this was very unlikely, but could happen if the stacks of pellets slumped over and became jumbled together on the floor of the storage pool.

    Plant workers would then need to add water with lots of boron because the boron absorbs neutrons and interrupts nuclear chain reactions.

    If a lot of fission occurs, which may happen only in an extreme case, the uranium would melt through anything underneath it. If it encounters water as it descends, a steam explosion could then scatter the molten uranium.

    At Daiichi, each assembly has either 64 large fuel rods or 81 slightly smaller fuel rods. A typical fuel rod assembly has roughly 380 pounds of uranium.

    One big worry for Japanese officials is that Reactor No. 3, the main target of the helicopters and water cannons on Thursday, uses a new and different fuel. It uses mixed oxides, or mox, which contains a mixture of uranium and plutonium, and can produce a more dangerous radioactive plume if scattered by fire or explosions. According to Tokyo Electric, 32 of the 514 fuel rod assemblies in the storage pond at Reactor No. 3 contain mox.

    Japan had hoped to solve the spent fuel buildup with a large-scale plan to recycle the rods into fuel that would go back into its nuclear program. But even before Friday’s quake, that plan had hit setbacks.

    Central to Japan’s plans is a $28 billion reprocessing facility in Rokkasho village, north of the quake zone, which would extract uranium and plutonium from the rods for use in making mox fuel. After countless construction delays, test runs began in 2006, and the plant’s operator, Japan Nuclear Fuel, said operations would begin in 2010. But in late 2010, its opening was delayed by two years.

    To close the nuclear fuel recycling process, Japan also built the Monju, a fast breeder reactor, which started running in full in 1994. But a year later, a fire caused by a sodium leak shut down the plant.

    Despite revelations that the operator, the quasi-governmental Japan Atomic Energy Agency, had covered up the seriousness of the accident, Monju again started operating at a reduced capacity.

    Another nuclear reprocessing facility in Tokaimura has been shut down since 1999, when an accident at an experimental fast breeder showered hundreds in the vicinity with radiation, and two workers were killed.

    Many of these facilities were hit by Friday’s earthquake. A spent fuel pool at Rokkasho spilled over, and power at the plant was lost, triggering backup generators, Japan Nuclear Fuel said.

    According to the Citizens Nuclear Information Center, an anti-nuclear group, about 3,000 tons of fuel are stored at Rokkasho. But the plant, about 180 feet above sea level, escaped the tsunami. Grid power was restored on Monday, the company said.

  • All About Meltdowns
    Excerpts from the

    Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400)

    (commonly known as the Rasmussen Report)

    published by the
    US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Table of Contents

    0. Introductory Note: Rasmussen and the CANDU Reactor

    I. Excerpts from the Executive Summary (WASH-1400)


    II. Excerpts from the Main Report

    III. Excerpts from Appendix VIII

    IV. Excerpts from Appendices VII and VI
    TABLE: Initial Activity of Radionuclides in the Nuclear
    Reactor Core at the Time of the Hypothetical Accident (Appendix VI)

    V. Steam Explosions: Molten Materials Contacting Water
    B1.2.1.1 Mallory-Sharon Incident
    B1.2.1.2 Reynolds Aluminum Incident
    B1.2.1.3 Quebec Foundry Incident
    B1.2.1.5 Armco Steel Incident
    B1.2.1.6 East German Slag Incident
    B1.2.1.7 British Slag Incident
    B1.2.3.1 Canadian NRX Reactor
    B1.2.3.2 Borax I Reactor
    B1.2.3.3 SPERT 1-D Reactor
    B1.2.3.4 SL-1 Reactor

    0. Introductory Note:
    Rasmussen and the CANDU Reactor

    Both AECL and Ontario Hydro, in submissions to the Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning (the “Porter Commission”), cited the Rasmussen Report (WASH-1400) as an essential part of their argument that risks associated with Canadian CANDU reactors are acceptable. Porter Commission, Exhibit 158, pp.14-15; Exhibit 2, pp.43-44.
    G.A. Pon, Vice President of AECL Power Projects, said of WASH-1400:

    “Although the study was prepared in the U.S. assessing the risks associated with their light water nuclear power plants, the findings should not be significantly different for the CANDU reactor.” Porter Commission, Exhibit 28, p.5
    In sworn testimony before the Cluff Lake Board of Inquiry into Uranium Mining in Saskatchewan, Dr. Norman Rasmussen — the principal author of WASH-1400 — commented about CANDU meltdown possibilities:
    “although the Canadian design philosophy differs in some of its approaches . . . it achieves, in my judgment, about the same safety level as far as I can tell.”
    So what is the bottom line as described in the Rasmussen Report?

    45,000 cases of radiation sickness (requiring hospitalization)
    3,300 prompt deaths (from acute radiation sickness)
    45,000 fatal cancers (over 50 years)
    250,000 non-fatal cancers (over 50 years)
    190 defective children born (per year)
    $14 billion in property damage (in 1974 dollars; not insurable)
    Nor are these the worst consequences that can be imagined.
    Although the Rasmussen Report is flawed in many respects, and in many ways tends to understate the dangers from nuclear reactors, nevertheless there is much in the report that is illuminating and important. The excerpts given here were cited by Dr. Gordon Edwards following the Three Mile Island Accident, when testifying to the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs on the subject of potentially catastrophic accidents in CANDU nuclear plants.

    above commentary by Dr. Gordon Edwards
    I. Excerpts from the Executive Summary (pp. 6-7)

    The only way that potentially large amounts of radioactivity could be released is by melting of the fuel in the reactor core.

    The fuel that is removed from a reactor after use and stored at the plant site also contains considerable amounts of radioactivity. However, accidental releases from such used fuel were found to be quite unlikely and small compared to potential releases of radioactivity from the fuel in the reactor core.

    The study has examined a very large number of potential paths by which potential radioactive releases might occur and has identified those that determine the risks. This involved defining the ways in which the core could melt and the ways in which systems to control the release of radioactivity could fail.


    It is significant that in some 200 reactor-years of commercial operation of reactors of the type considered in the report there have been no fuel melting accidents. To melt the fuel requires a failure in the cooling system or the occurrence of a heat imbalance that would allow the fuel to heat up to its melting point, about 5000 o F [2800 o C] .

    To those unfamiliar with the characteristics of reactors, it might seem that all that is required to prevent fuel from overheating is to promptly stop, or shut down, the fission process at the first sign of trouble. Although reactors have such [fast shutdown] systems, they alone are not enough since the radioactive decay of fission fragments in the fuel continues to generate heat (called decay heat) that must be removed even after the fission process stops. Thus, redundant decay heat removal systems are also provided in reactors. In addition, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) are provided to cope with a series of potential but unlikely accidents, caused by ruptures in, and loss of coolant from, the normal cooling system.

    The Reactor Safety Study has defined two broad types of situations that might potentially lead to a melting of the reactor core: the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and transients.

    In the event of a potential loss of coolant, the normal cooling water would be lost from the cooling systems and core melting would be prevented by the use of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS). However, melting could occur in a loss of coolant if the ECCS were to fail to operate.

    The term “transient” refers to any one of a number of conditions which could occur in a plant and would require the reactor to be shut down. Following shutdown, the decay heat removal systems would operate to keep the core from overheating. Certain failures in either the shutdown or the decay heat removal systems also have the potential to cause melting of the core.


    An essentially leaktight containment building is provided to prevent the initial dispersion of the airborne radioactivity into the environment. Although the containment would fail in time if the core were to melt, until that time, the radioactivity released from the fuel would be deposited by natural processes on the surfaces inside the containment. In addition, plants are provided with systems to contain and trap the radioactivity released within the containment building.

    Even though the containment building would be expected to remain intact for some time following a core melt, eventually the molten mass would be expected to eat its way through the concrete floor into the ground below. Following this, much of the radioactive material would be trapped in the soil; however, a small amount would escape to the surface and be released. Almost all of the non-gaseous radioactivity would be trapped in the soil.

    It is possible to postulate core melt accidents in which the containment building would fail by overpressurization or by missiles created by the accident. Such accidents are less likely but could release a larger amount of airborne radioactivity and have more serious consequences.


    Loss of coolant accidents are postulated to result from failures in the normal reactor cooling water system, and plants are designed to cope with such failures. The water in the reactor cooling systems is at a very high pressure (between 50 to 100 times the pressure in a car tire) and if a rupture were to occur in the pipes, pumps, valves, or vessels that contain it, then a “blowout” would happen. In this case some of the water would flash to steam and blow out of the hole. This could be serious since the fuel could melt if additional cooling were not supplied in a rather short time.

    The study has examined a large number of potential sequences of events following LOCAs [loss-of-coolant accidents] of various sizes. In almost all of the cases, the LOCA must be followed by failures in the emergency core cooling system for the core to melt.


    The term “reactor transient” refers to a number of events that require the reactor to be shut down. These range from normal shutdown for such things as refuelling to such unplanned but expected events as loss of power to the plant from the utility transmission lines.

    The reactor is designed to cope with unplanned transients by automatically shutting down. Following shutdown, cooling systems would be operated to remove the heat produced by the radioactivity in the fuel. There are several different cooling systems capable of removing this heat, but if they all should fail, the heat being produced would be sufficient to eventually boil away all the cooling water and melt the core.

    In addition to the above pathway to core melt, it is also possible to postulate core melt resulting from the failure of the reactor shutdown systems following a transient event. In this case it would be possible for the amounts of heat generated to be such that the available cooling systems might not cope with it and core melt could result.


    The Reactor Safety Study carefully examined the various paths leading to core melt. Using methods developed in recent years for estimating the likelihood of such accidents, a probability of occurrence was determined for each core melt accident identified. These probabilities were combined to obtain the total probability of melting the core.

    The value obtained was about one in 20,000 per reactor per year. With 100 reactors operating, as is anticipated for the U.S. by about 1980, this means that the chance for one such accident is one in 200 per year [or about 1 in 10 over a period of 20 years].

    II. Excerpts from the Main Report (WASH-1400)
    re Fuel Melting (pp. 25-29)

    The identification of all significant sources of radioactivity, the fact that a gross release of radioactivity can occur only if fuel melts, knowledge of the factors that affect heat balances in the fuel, and the fact that mechanisms that could lead to heat imbalances have been scrutinized for many years, all provide a high degree of confidence that those accidents of significance to risk have been identified.


    A LOCA [loss-of-coolant accident] would result whenever the reactor coolant system (RCS) experiences a break or opening large enough so that the coolant inventory in the system could not be maintained by the normally operating makeup system. Nuclear plants include many engineered safety features (ESFs) that are provided to mitigate the consequences of such an event.

    The specific LOCA initiating events analyzed in this study are:

    a. Large pipe breaks
    (6 inches to approximately 3 feet equivalent diameter).
    b. Small to intermediate pipe breaks
    (2 inches to 6 inches equivalent diameters).

    c. Small pipe breaks
    (1/2 inch to 2 inches equivalent diameter).

    d. Large disruptive reactor vessel ruptures.

    e. Gross steam generator ruptures.

    f. Ruptures between systems that interface with the
    RCS [reactor coolant system].

    The basic purpose of the ESFs [engineered safety features] is the same for both PWR [pressurized-water reactors] and BWR [boiling-water reactor] plants. However, the nature and functions of ESFs differ somewhat between PWRs and BWRs because of the differences in the plant designs.
    A number of the ESFs [engineered safety features] are included in a group termed the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) whose function is to provide adequate cooling of the reactor core in the event of a LOCA [loss-of-coolant accident]. Other ESFs provide rapid reactor shutdown and reduce the containment radioactivity and pressure levels that result from escape of the reactor coolant from the RCS [reactor coolant system].

    In early power reactors the power level was about one tenth that of today’s large reactors. It was thought that core melting in those low power reactors would not lead to melt-through of the containment. Further, since the decay heat was low enough to be readily transferred through the steel containment walls to the outside atmosphere, it could not overpressurize and fail [i.e. cause a failure in] the containment. Thus, if a LOCA [loss-of-coolant accident] were to occur, and even if the core were to melt, the low leakage containments that were provided would have permitted the release of only a small amount of radioactivity.

    However, as reactors grew larger, several new considerations became apparent.

    The decay heat levels were now so high that the heat could not be dissipated through the containment walls. Further, in the event of accidents, concrete shielding was required around the outside of the containment to prevent over-exposure of persons in the vicinity of the plant. Finally, it became likely that a molten core could melt through the thick concrete containment base into the ground. Thus, new sets of requirements came into being.

    Emergency core cooling systems were needed to prevent core melting which could, in turn, cause failure of all barriers to the release of radioactivity.
    Systems were needed to transfer the core decay heat from the containment to the outside environment in order to prevent the heat from producing internal pressures high enough to rupture the containment.
    Finally, systems were needed to remove radioactivity from the containment atmosphere in order to reduce the amount that could leak from the containment into the environment.
    The major goal behind these changes were to attempt to provide ESFs [engineered safety features] designed so that the failure of any single barrier would not be likely to cause the failure of any of the other barriers. For example, if the RCS [reactor coolant system] were to rupture, ECC [emergency core cooling] systems were installed to prevent the fuel from melting and thereby protect the integrity of the containment.
    Other features were added to aid this positive objective. For example, additional piping restraints and protective shields were required to lessen the likelihood of ESF [emergency safety features] damage that could result from pipe whip following a large break in the RCS [reactor coolant system].

    Knowledge that large natural forces such as earthquakes and tornadoes could cause multiple failures led to design requirements that attempted to reduce the likelihood of dependent failures from such causes. Appendix IX provides more detailed descriptions of the above and many more of the safety features in current nuclear plants.


    Prior studies have indicated that a core meltdown in a large reactor would likely lead to failure of the containment (Ref. 1,2). Thus, a commonly held opinion regarding core melting is that such an event would result in a very serious accident with large public consequences. This is evidently one of the reasons that major safety efforts have been devoted to the prevention of core meltdown and little attention has been directed toward the examination of the potential relationships between core melting and containment integrity.

    At two key stages in the course of a potential core meltdown there would be conditions which would have the potential to result in a steam explosion that could rupture the reactor vessel and/or the containment. These conditions may occur

    when molten fuel would fall from the core region into water at the bottom of the reactor vessel, or
    when it would melt through the bottom of the reactor vessel and fall into water in the bottom of the containment.
    It is predicted (see Appendix VIII) that if such an explosion were to occur in the reactor vessel, it may be energetic enough to change the course of the accident.

    For reactors enclosed in relatively large volume containments, it is considered improbable that a steam explosion outside the reactor vessel would rupture the containment. If a steam explosion were to occur within the reactor vessel, it is considered possible that both large and small containments could be penetrated by a large missile. Such occurrences might release substantial amounts of radioactivity to the environment.

    However, these modes of containment failure are predicted to have low probabilities of occurrence.


    In section 3.2 the spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) is identified as having a significant radioactivity inventory, second in amount to the reactor core. Further, the decay heat levels in freshly unloaded fuel assemblies that may be stored in the pool may be sufficiently high to cause fuel melting if the water is completely drained from the SFSP [spent fuel storage pool].

    Because the maximum amount of fuel stored in the pool immediately after refuelling is smaller than that in the core and because it has had time (72 hours minimum) for radioactive decay, it is a less intense heat source than a reactor core (about one-sixth) and therefore melt-through of the bottom structure of the pool would occur at a much lower rate and, in fact, may not occur at all.

    On the average, fuel in the pool will have undergone about 125 days of decay, and it is questionable that such fuel would melt. However, to assure that the risk would not be underestimated, it has been assumed that even this fuel would melt.

    Although the pool is not within a containment building, filters in the SFSP building ventilation system and natural deposition of radioactivity within the building both aid in reducing the amount of radioactivity that might be released to the environment in the event of a spent fuel accident.

    The analyses of accidents that could potentially lead to loss of fuel cooling in the SFSP [spent fuel storage pool] are discussed in section 5 of Appendix I. The most probable ways in which such accidents could occur have been determined to be the loss of the pool cooling system or the perforation of the bottom of the pool. The latter could occur, for example, by dropping a shipping cask in the pool or on the top edge of the pool. Both this type of accident and the loss of cooling capability, are of low likelihood.

    “Right after shutdown the heating rate of the reactor is about seven percent of the full power rate, and then as the radioactivity decays away it [the decay heat] decreases; in a few hours it’s less than one percent, and it keeps going down . . .
    “Even one percent [of full power] is a lot of heat, and if you don’t remove that heat it’s surely enough to overheat the fuel and melt it, and therein lies the problem that the reactor safety analyst must face — to assure himself that the heat produced by these decaying fission products is reduced, is removed for periods of weeks or months . . .

    “Every core melt in our study is assumed to melt its way through the bottom of the reactor.”

    Norman Rasmussen testimony, Cluff Lake Board of Inquiry, transcript p.8686.

    III. Excerpts from Appendix VIII of WASH-1400
    on Core Meltdowns

    The behavior of a core during a meltdown accident is uncertain. No cores have been melted. Experiments involving more than a cupful of molten UO2 [uranium oxide fuel] are still in the planning stages.

    Some properties of molten UO2 [uranium oxide fuel] are known: melting point, boiling point, and heat of fusion. However, little is known about the viscosity, internal thermal convection, surface tension, or the metallurgical effects of various diluents. Nevertheless, considerable insight has been developed by people working in the field about the possible course of core meltdown.

    Because the core power tends to peak (about 2.5 times average) at the center of the core, and because the cladding-steam reaction increases the heatup rate of the hotter regions, core melting starts at the center of the core.

    Because of the power peaking and the presence of water in the bottom of the core, the core temperatures a foot away from the melted region are frequently calculated to be more than 1000 o F below the melting point of the fuel. In these relatively cool regions, the UO2 would remain solid although the cladding could be melted.

    Because the fuel rods in the core are relatively closely packed, there is not room for solid fuel pellets to fall out of the core nor for gross distortion of the solid portions of the core. In this situation, it is believed a region of solid rubble would form under the molten fuel, and the molten fuel would tend to be retained in the core.

    However, since the rubble continues to generate heat, it will eventually melt, and the increasingly larger molten region will move downward. If the pool moves downward fast enough, it will intercept the water that is boiling out of the bottom of the core. When this happens either

    steam explosions will occur, or
    the boiloff rate and, therefore, the cladding-steam reaction rate will increase.
    When the molten regions grows to include 50 to 80 percent of the core, it becomes questionable whether or not the molten region can be retained inside the core. At this time, the molten pool will be 3 to 4 feet thick, and will presumably be held up by a layer of rubble.

    When large fractions of the core are molten, the core-support plates and shrouds are also exposed to high thermal loadings. Failure of these major structural members would release the molten pool and either

    the rest of the water boils out of the pressure vessel, or
    a steam explosion results.


    The processes by which the molten core interacts with the concrete floor of the containment building are very complex and not fully understood. In the absence of definitive experimental information it is only possible to estimate approximately the time required for penetration of the containment floor by the molten core.

    When the molten fuel (together with molten zirconium, zirconium oxide, steel, iron oxide, etc.) falls onto the concrete, vaporization of free water below the surface will cause spalling of the concrete and result in a very rapid penetration rate of the melt into the concrete.

    Based on the vaporization of the free water, initial spalling rates are calculated to be 15 to 30 feet per hour. As the concrete heats up it will give up its water of hydration at about 900 o F; then, at 1400 o F to 1600 o F, the limestone will decompose into CO2 [carbon dioxide] and CaO [calcium oxide]. It is expected that the water vapor and carbon dioxide would escape from the melt.

    As the products of concrete decomposition are absorbed and/or dissolved by the melt, the melt temperature will decrease until constituents of the mixture begin to precipitate. It is estimated that by the time the melt has penetrated through 1 1/2 feet of concrete, UO2 [uranium oxide] would begin to precipitate from the multicomponent mixture.

    From this point on the progress of the melt through the concrete is controlled by the rate of decay-heat generation; i.e., the quantity of concrete penetrated is directly proportional to the energy available to decompose the concrete and raise the temperature of the products [of such decomposition] to the temperature of the melt.

    After the initial rapid penetration of concrete by spalling, the melt is expected to remain relatively viscous, decomposing and dissolving concrete at a rate compatible with decay-heat generation. Because the silica and calcia that are introduced at the lower surface are less dense than the body of the melt, convection currents that should be established will [by effectively “stirring” the melt] prevent the center of the melt from reaching very high temperatures. Also, the carbon dioxide and water vapor released by the concrete, and/or their further decomposition products, will provide additional agitation as they rise [as bubbles] through the melt.

    The upper surface of the melt is likely to be covered with a solid crust and to be radiating heat to the remains of the pressure vessel and to the walls of the reactor cavity. If there is water in the cavity it will be vaporized by the melt, but even the continued addition of water would not avert containment meltthrough since the geometry of the molten mass is not favorable for effective cooling. If the structures above the melt reach elevated temperatures, they could fall into the melt.

    That at least part of the mass of fuel, structural, and other material remain molten is required by heat-transfer considerations.

    If this mass should solidify at some point during the accident, then the only mechanism for dissipating decay heat would be conduction. For conduction to transfer the decay heat out of the largely low conductivity mass of material involved, temperatures at the center of the mass would have to exceed boiling points of some and melting points of all the constituents.

    Hence the conclusion that at least some of the mass will remain in a fluid state for considerable time, with convection within the melt tending to maintain the melt temperature near the effective melting point of the mixture. It is recognized that as the size of the melt increases and the heat-generation rate per unit volume decreases due to dilution, solidification must eventually occur. Solidification is not, however, expected to take place prior to the penetration of the containment foundation mat.

    In estimating the time required to penetrate the 10-foot-thick foundation mat, three different configurations were considered for the quantity of concrete decomposed by the molten core:

    a 15-foot-diameter, 10-foot-high cylinder;
    a 10-foot-radius hemisphere; and
    a 32-foot-diameter, 10-foot-high cylinder.
    The first case assumed that the melt progressed downward through the concrete faster than it did horizontally. The second case assumed equal rates of progress of the melt downward and horizontally. The third case assumed that the molten core materials spread within the confines of the reactor cavity and then attacked the concrete at equal rates in the downward and horizontal directions.

    Because the carbon dioxide and water vapor produced by the decomposition of the concrete would tend to sparge the melt of fission products, the decay heat utilized for this analysis corresponded to 60 percent of that at the time of LOCA [the original loss-of-coolant accident]. This implies complete loss of the volatile fission products and fractional removal of some of the less volatile [radioactive] species from the melt [and into the reactor containment area].

    Assuming all the decay heat goes into the concrete, the times required to penetrate the concrete and bring the entire melt to 4000 o F will be 7, 9, and 36 hours for the three cases considered. These times are based on contact of the concrete by the molten core at 2 to 3 hours after the start of the accident. Making an allowance for heat losses from the upper surface of the melt, the best estimate for the time required to penetrate the containment foundation mat is 18 hours.

    More rapid meltthrough of the concrete than calculated could occur if the spalled pieces of concrete were floated to the surface of the melt without undergoing dissolution and being elevated to the temperature of the melt.

    [ from p.VIII-66 . . . ]

    After the molten material has penetrated the concrete floor, the melt front will proceed into the underlying gravel and possibly into the earth.

    The ultimate extent to which the molten zone can grow depends upon the heat removal processes at the upper and lower surfaces and the chemical and physical processes within the melt. Estimates have been made of the ultimate extent of the growth of this region. Assuming that heat removal at the surface is limited to conduction, the maximum radius of molten sphere has been calculated to be 30 feet and 50 feet for growth into media of limestone and dry sand, respectively (Ref 14).

    The analyses of Jansen and Stepnewski (Ref. 12) for basaltic concrete indicated a maximum radius of 38 feet for a molten hemisphere. Since the ground underneath containment is well below the level of the water table, conduction heat transfer at the surface of the melt should be augmented by steam generation and convection.

    It is therefore likely that the melt will not proceed more than 10 to 50 feet below the bottom of the containment building. Greater depths could only be achieved if the core material were able to melt through the underlying material without mixing and being diluted by the products of decomposition.

    Although it has been predicted that small pellets of solid UO2 could travel some distance before being dissolved into the molten products of the medium being penetrated (Ref. 14), good mixing should occur between molten UO2 and the products of decomposition of concrete or soil in the configurations expected in the meltdown accident.


    Inside the building housing a reactor which is undergoing a major nuclear accident, internal steam pressure can be greatly reduced by using a dousing system to condense the steam. All CANDU reactors are provided with such a dousing system. It is much more difficult to reduce the pressure from non-condensable gases which are formed in great quantities during meltdown. The following passage is from page VIII-117. commentary by Dr. Gordon Edwards.
    There are two major sources of noncondensable-gas generation in a reactor accident in which core meltdown occurs. Metal-water reactions in the pressure vessel will produce hydrogen gas (H2) shortly before and during the meltdown process. Later in the accident, carbon dioxide (CO2) will be generated as the molten core material causes thermal decomposition of limestone aggregate in the concrete base mat of the containment structure.
    The production of these gases presents two potential threats to containment integrity. Both gases will cause a buildup in internal gas pressure in the system. Hydrogen generation can also lead to combustible mixtures with the oxygen already present in the containment atmosphere. Ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen mixtures can produce an exothermic [heat-producing] chemical reaction which, depending upon conditions, might develop into a detonation. The introduction of additional thermal energy into the containment atmosphere will cause a rise in pressure, perhaps coupled with a shock-wave loading on the containment walls if the detonation occurs.

    The important question in all of these situations is whether, or under what conditions, would they likely result in containment failure by overpressurization. The hydrogen-generation problem is examined first for each type of water-reactor system; an analysis of the carbon dioxide generation problem follows. [However, these analyses are not included in this text . . . ]

    IV. Excerpts from Appendix VII and VI

    1.2 MELTDOWN RELEASE COMPONENT (Appendix VII, pp. 6 & 7)
    The conditions pertaining to this release period begin with rapid boiloff of the water coolant which uncovers the reactor core.

    Steam, flowing up through the heating core, initiates Zr – H2O [zirconium-steam] reactions and this accelerates the rate of temperature rise. The cladding [made of zirconium metal] begins to melt within one minute and in a few more minutes fuel-melting temperatures are approached in the hotter regions.

    The process spreads throughout the core and within 30 minutes to 2 hours (Ref. 1) nearly the whole core is molten at temperatures ranging from roughly 2000 o C to 3000 o C.

    During the later stages of this process molten core material can run through or melt through the grid plate and fall into the bottom of the pressure vessel. If a steam explosion does not occur when residual water is contacted in the lower portion of the pressure vessel, partial quenching and temporary solidification of portions of the molten mass can take place. However, the internal heat generation causes remelting and the inevitable downward migration continues until the pressure vessel fails, probably by meltthrough.

    Pressure vessel failure is expected to require about 1 hour after most of the core has melted (Ref. 1). Prior to this the high internal temperatures have caused melting of some of the pressure vessel steel and interior structural components. The molten iron is not miscible with the core material (oxide phase) although partial conversion to iron oxides could produce some dissolution in and dilution of the core material. Nevertheless some fission products (i.e., the noble metals) would tend to distribute [i.e. migrate] to the metallic iron phase.

    Initial fuel melting is expected to occur in only the center regions of the rods on almost a pellet by pellet scale. Thus the melting fuel will offer a relatively high surface area for release of fission products.

    As the melting front moves outward, the melting of the individual pellets may continue, but it is also conceivable that larger sections of fuel may collapse into the molten mass. If this fuel melts within the mass rather than at the edge, then fission product release could be inhibited by the time required for transport [of the fission products] to a free surface. On the other hand, gaseous fission products, present as bubbles in the UO2 [molten uranium oxide fuel], could rise quickly to the surface of the molten mass and escape.

    It appears that most of the fission product release that does occur will take place early in the melting period at each core location. Then as the melted fuel mixes with the rest of the molten mass and the mass increases in size, fission product release rates will become much slower.

    The melting of structural steel in the pressure vessel during this later period is expected to produce a layer of molten iron above the molten core material which would offer a further barrier to fission product release. Other factors which can inhibit release during meltdown in the pressure vessel include the possibility of crust formation at the melt surface and partial quenching when melt runs or falls into water that may be left in the bottom of the vessel.

    The atmosphere in the core region and pressure vessel during meltdown is expected to be a steam-hydrogen mixture with small concentrations of fission-product and core-material vapors and aerosols. This may be classified a nonoxidizing atmosphere for most fission products, and it, of course, results from partial consumption of steam by metal-water reactions, yielding H2 [hydrogen gas] in the core region.

    Although the metal-water reaction that does occur is steam-supply limited, some steam flow passes through cooler portions of the core region without complete reaction. It is estimated that during the meltdown phases only about half the Zircaloy is reacted and other metal-water reaction produces only about 50 percent more H2 [hydrogen gas]. Thus total metal-water reaction is only the equivalent of 75 percent of [the theoretically possible] Zr-H2O reaction.

    Thermal analyses of core meltdown provide only generalized data on core temperature profiles, geometry changes, and melt behavior versus time. This, combined with the uncertainties which exist in fission product properties at very high temperatures, argue against construction of a highly mechanistic model to calculate fission product release during the meltdown phase. Therefore, in this work, fission product release is treated as being simply proportional to the fraction of core melted.

    Fuel melting accidents release more than 200 different radioactive substances, of which the following 54 are among the most dangerous. CANDU safety analyses routinely restrict themselves to only a small handful of these: iodine, the inert gases krypton and xenon, and, in some cases, cesium — all released before melting actually begins. The table is adapted from Appendix VI of WASH-1400; only the manner of expression for units of radioactivity and time has been altered; the information is otherwise identical. [commentary by Dr. Gordon Edwards]
    TABLE VI 3-1

    Radioactive Inventory
    No. Radionuclide (Source Term in curies) Half Life
    == ============ ======================== ==========
    1 Cobalt-58 780 thousand 10.1 weeks
    2 Cobalt-60 290 thousand 5.25 years
    3 Krypton-85 560 thousand 10.8 years
    4 Krypton-85m 24 million 4.4 hours
    5 Krypton-87 47 million 1.25 hours
    6 Krypton-88 68 million 2.8 hours
    7 Rubidium-86 26 thousand 2.67 weeks
    8 Strontium-89 94 million 7.4 weeks
    9 Strontium-90 3 million 700 thousand 30.2 years
    10 Strontium-91 110 million 9.7 hours
    11 Yttrium-90 390 thousand 2.67 days
    12 Yttrium-91 120 million 8.4 weeks
    13 Zirconium-95 150 million 9.3 weeks
    14 Zirconium-97 150 million 17.0 hours
    15 Niobium-95 150 million 5.0 weeks
    16 Molybdenum-99 160 million 2.8 days
    17 Technetium-99m 140 million 6.0 hours
    18 Ruthenium-103 110 million 5.64 weeks
    19 Ruthenium-105 72 million 4.44 hours
    20 Ruthenium-106 25 million 1.0 years
    21 Rhodium-105 49 million 1.50 days
    22 Tellurium-127 5 million 900 thousand 9.38 hours
    23 Tellurium-127m 1 million 100 thousand 15.6 weeks
    24 Tellurium-129 31 million 1.15 hours
    25 Tellurium-129m 5 million 300 thousand 8.16 hours
    26 Tellurium-131m 13 million 1.25 days
    27 Tellurium-132 120 million 3.25 days
    28 Antimony-127 6 million 100 thousand 3.88 days
    29 Antimony-129 33 million 4.30 hours
    30 Iodine-131 85 million 8.05 days
    31 Iodine-132 120 million 2.30 hours
    32 Iodine-133 170 million 21.0 hours
    33 Iodine-134 190 million 53 minutes
    34 Iodine-135 150 million 6.72 hours
    35 Xenon-133 170 million 5.28 days
    36 Xenon-135 34 million 9.2 hours
    37 Cesium-134 7 million 500 thousand 2.05 years
    38 Cesium-136 3 million 13.0 days
    39 Cesium-137 4 million 700 thousand 30.1 years
    40 Barium-140 160 million 12.8 days
    41 Lanthanum-14 0 160 million 1.67 days
    42 Cerium-141 150 million 4.6 weeks
    43 Cerium-143 130 million 1.38 days
    44 Cerium-144 85 million 40.6 weeks
    45 Praseodymium-143 130 million 13.7 days
    46 Neodymium-147 60 million 11.1 days
    47 Neptunium-239 1 billion 640 million 2.35 days
    48 Plutonium-238 57 thousand 89.0 years
    49 Plutonium-239 21 thousand 24,000 years
    50 Plutonium-240 21 thousand 6,571 years
    51 Plutonium-241 3 million 400 thousand 14.6 years
    52 Americium-241 1 thousand 7 hundred 410.7 years
    53 Curium-242 500 thousand 23.3 weeks
    54 Curium-244 23 thousand 18.1 years
    The kind of meltdown accidents envisaged in WASH-1400 require a much more extensive evacuation plan than any that is currently envisaged in Canada, as indicated in this very brief excerpt from Appendix VI of WASH-1400. [ comentary by Dr. Gordon Edwards]
    Figure VI.11-2: Evacuation area used for cost calculations.

    In the evacuation model incorporated into the consequence calculations, the evacuation area is postulated to be shaped like a keyhole centered on the prevailing wind direction at the time of the release.
    The dimensions of the area are chosen to be 5 and 25 miles and 45 o (see Fig. VI 11-2) for the following reasons.

    The evacuation would be carried out to mitigate the early exposure to individuals; the early exposure from the passing cloud would contribute little to the population dose.
    Since the resources of the local authorities — all that would be available immediately after the accident — are limited, it would be desirable to minimize the evacuation area and the number of evacuees.
    On the other hand, the goal would be to evacuate anyone who might receive a significant dose. The values 25 miles and 45 o represent a compromise.
    In addition to this sector, it was judged prudent to evacuate all people within a 5-mile radius of the reactor.
    The evacuation costs are calculated on the basis of the number of people living in this evacuation area.
    In order to calculate doses to individuals within the evacuation area, people are postulated to move radially away from the reactor at a specified effective evacuation speed until the cloud reaches them, and then to move in a circumferential direction. For example, if an effective evacuation speed of 1 mph [mile per hour] is assumed, people located between 2 to 3 miles from the reactor are assumed to be 7 to 8 miles away from the reactor 5 hours after the warning.

    V. Physical Explosions Resulting from
    Contact of Molten Materials and Water

    During a major nuclear accident involving significant fuel melting, tremendous pressures can be generated which will test the integrity of the containment systems.
    This is particularly true in the event of violent steam explosions or hydrogen detonations, such as those which occurred during the 1952 accident at the small NRX reactor located in Chalk River. The explosions inside the NRX reactor were sufficient to hurl a four-ton gasholder dome four feet through the air, where it lodged in the superstructure.

    The following excerpts from Appendix VIII-B of the Rasmussen Report (pages VIII-77 to VIII-79) describe briefly what is known about the kind of steam explosions which occur when molten metal comes into sudden contact with water. [commentary by Dr. Gordon Edwards]



    When molten metal comes into contact with a quenching fluid, a violent explosion can occur. This so-called “vapor or physical explosion” [commonly called a “steam explosion”] is a well-known, but little understood, phenomenon.

    A vapor explosion is usually characterized by an initiating event that leads to fragmentation, and by the sudden conversion of thermal energy to mechanical energy due to very rapid heat transfer accompanied by a subsequent pressure wave. The violence depends upon the quantity and rate of energy release.

    Numerous incidents have been reported in the literature (Refs. 1-12). Such explosions have occurred in the steel (Refs. 1-4), aluminum (Refs. 5,6), copper smelting (Ref. 5), paper (Refs. 7, 8), and nuclear industries (Refs. 9, 10).

    The mechanism that triggers or initiates the explosion is not known; however, two basic facts have been established:

    the causative mechanism is not due to chemical reaction (Ref. 13), and
    fragmentation of the sample material is usually involved.
    Both experimental results and analyses (Ref. 14) have shown that the heat-transfer rates required to release the observed energy from a smooth metal sample are several orders of magnitude higher than the maximum rates that can be obtained in laboratory studies. Thus it has been concluded by numerous investigators that fragmentation of the metal to generate large surface areas is required to obtain the observed explosion violence.


    Explosive incidents periodically occurring in the paper and metal industries have been reported. Several such incidents have been summarized (Ref. 11) and are cited to demonstrate the magnitude of the destructive forces present and the physical circumstances leading to the incidents.


    Explosive accidents are infrequent in the metal industry but when they do occur, the destruction is severe.

    B1.2.1.1 Mallory-Sharon Incident (Ref. 35).
    In 1954, a titanium arc-melting furnace, which was water-cooled, exploded at a plant in Ohio. Nine injuries included four fatalities and property damage was $30,000. The explosion was believed to result from water entering the melting crucible.

    B1.2.1.2 Reynolds Aluminum Incident (Ref. 35).

    In 1958, an aluminum-water explosion occurred in Illinois involving some 46 injuries, 6 fatalities and approximately $1,000,000 in property damage. The explosion “rocked a 25 mile” area. Wet scrap metal was being loaded into a furnace when the explosion was triggered.

    B1.2.1.3 Quebec Foundry Incident (Ref. 4).

    The accident occurred in a foundry building approximately 18 million cubic-foot volume.

    One hundred pounds of molten steel fell into a shallow trough containing about 78 gallons of water. The resulting explosion injured mill personnel (one fatally) and caused $150,000 damage to the foundry building including cracking a 20-inch concrete floor, breaking 6000 panes of glass, and structural damage to the walls and ceilings. Damage was also incurred [i.e. experienced] by another structure separated some 75 yards from the foundry building.

    This accident is one of the better documented incidents.

    B1.2.1.4 Western Foundries Incident (Ref. 36).

    In 1966, while 3000 pounds of molten steel was being poured from an electric furnace into a tile-lined dropped into a water filled pit. The result was a violent explosion that injured three workers and tore a 600-square-foot hole in the roof of a building of some 12,000-square-foot floor area. The explosion was heard some 3 miles from the foundry.

    B1.2.1.5 Armco Steel Incident (Refs. 37, 38).

    In 1967, an explosion occurred when molten steel fell on “damp” ground. A ladle containing some 30 tons of molten steel had been elevated some 40 feet when the ladle fell. Injuries sustained by some 30 workers included 6 fatalities. Evidently, sufficient moisture was present in the porous ground to trigger small-scale explosions that showered molten steel over a wide area.

    Although the injuries were attributed primarily to burns, an explosion accompanied the incident.

    B1.2.1.6 East German Slag Incident (Ref. 2).

    Appearing in 1959, an East German article discusses a number of slag-water explosions that have occurred in German open-hearth steel mills.

    Two accidents were discussed in which explosions resulted from spraying water on molten slag in open slag pits. One of the explosions resulted in a fatality and a number of other injuries. Severe structural damage was also noted. The second explosion was less severe. Both explosions were attributed to excess water in the slag passing down into the cracks to the hot molten material below.

    A third instance resulting in an explosion occurred when a slag pot was placed on a slag bed that had been previously sprayed with water. An explosion occurred, killing one man. The explosion was attributed to the heavy slag pot causing cracks in the surface of the hot slag bed and excess water on the surface getting into these cracks.

    Other explosions briefly described include rainwater leaking through an unsealed roof over a slag bed, resulting in an explosion, and two instances of explosions resulting when molten slag was poured into dump cars that had small amounts of water in the bottom.

    B1.2.1.7 British Slag Incident (Ref. 3).

    In 1964, an explosion occurred in a British steel mill when a ladle being used to tap a blast furnace was sprayed with lime water and returned to service. When it was next used, the ladle exploded when it was about three-fourths full of slag (12 to 14 tons). Damage to the structure and injuries to personnel were reported.

    The paper industry experiences explosions similar to those in the metal industry more frequently but they are less destructive. Explosions occur when paper smelt (mostly fused sodium carbonate with a few percent of sodium sulfide, sodium chloride, and minor ingredients) is quenched in large containers of “green liquor” (Refs. 7, 8).

    Also, explosions frequently occur when boiler tubes in waste-heat boilers fueled by “black liquor” fail, and water is injected into hot molten smelt and black liquor. These explosions occur with considerable destruction to the furnace and plant facilities.


    Explosive vapor formation when hot, molten core materials have come in contact with water have also been observed in nuclear reactors.

    B1.2.3.1 Canadian NRX Reactor (Ref. 35).
    In 1952, at Chalk River, Ontario, during a low-power experiment, a nuclear excursion was experienced. Although the duration of the incident was less than 62 seconds, the damage was sufficient to result in contamination of the facility. The [explosive] reaction between [molten]uranium and steam (or water) was the principal cause of damage.

    B1.2.3.2 Borax I Reactor (Ref. 35).

    In 1954, at the National Reactor Testing station in Idaho, the Borax I reactor was deliberately subjected to a potentially damaging power excursion in reactor safety studies: A power excursion lasting approximately 30 milliseconds produced a peak power of 19,000 megawatt-seconds.

    The power excursion melted most of the fuel elements. The reactor tank (1/2 inch steel) was ruptured by the pressure (probably in excess of 10,000 psi [pounds per square inch]) resulting from the reaction between the molten metal and the water.

    The sound of the explosion at the control station (1/2 mile away) was comparable to that from 1 to 2 pounds of 40 percent dynamite.

    B1.2.3.3 SPERT 1-D Reactor

    During the final test of the destructive test program with the SPERT 1-D core, damaging pressure generation was observed. Pressure transducers recorded the generation of a pressure pulse larger than 3000 psi which caused the destruction of the core.

    The pressure pulse occurred some 15 milliseconds after initiation of the power excursion. The power excursion rapidly overheated the fuel plates; the increased temperature melted the metal and the cladding of the fuel plates.

    After the transient, much of the fuel that had been molten was found dispersed in the coolant.

    B1.2.3.4 SL-1 Reactor

    In January, 1961, a nuclear excursion occurred in the SL-1 reactor in Idaho. The total energy released in the excursion was approximately 130 Mw-sec (Ref. 51). Of this, 50 Mw-sec was produced in the outer fuel elements in the core. This portion of the energy was slowly transferred to the water coolant over 2 sec period, and no melting (uranium-aluminum alloy) of the outer fuel elements occurred.

    About 50 to 60 megawatt-seconds of the total energy release was promptly released by 12 heavily damaged inner fuel elements to the water coolant in less than 30 milliseconds [a millisecond is 1 one thousandth of a second]. This prompt energy release resulted in rapid steam formation in the core which accelerated the water above the core and produced a water hammer that hit the pressure vessel lid. The vessel, weighing about 30,000 lbs with its internals, sheared its connecting piping and was lifted approximately 9 feet into the air by the momentum transferred from the water hammer.

    Calculations of the mechanical deformation of the vessel indicate that about 12 percent of the prompt energy release or 4.7 percent of the total nuclear release was converted into mechanical energy (Ref. 52).

    In each instance, under differing circumstances, a hot molten material fell, dropped, or spewed into a mass of cooler liquid and destructive pressure generation resulted. The complex mechanisms triggering this type of reaction are not completely understood.
    [ Accident Possibilities at Gentilly-2 ]
    [ Findings on CANDU Safety ]

    [ Reactor Accidents Sub-Directory ] [ COMPLETE DIRECTORY ]


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    • Steven Steven

      By the time I finish reading all this I’ll be too old to worry about cancer 🙂

      Sticking to my own original thesis – ‘nuclear disasters for dummies’ : box full of kak went bang – kak everywhere.

      • Whoopie Whoopie

        Hate to say this but I agree with you Steven.
        Personally I like HEADLINES ONLY here. But who am I? nobody. 🙂

        • Bobby1

          Here’s your headline:

          47 Neptunium-239 1 billion 640 million 2.35 days

          Neptunium-239 decays into Plutonium-239 with a half-life of 24,000 years.

          • You got it Bobby1.

            Was just discussing this with my wife: how to handle topics that cannot be discussed, that are out of the mainstream, almost invisible, and liable to cause anger, disbelief or ridicule.

            Our water, air, soil, plants and animals have been harmed forever.

            Half life of Uranium and its isotopes is 4.3 billion years. That means it stays around for about 40 billion years. Uranium is a radiation multiplier – it makes surrounding radiation worse.

            Should I undo this statement? Am I over-reacting?

            Nobody, except Merkel, and a few others can talk about it. It’s invisible, but it’s huge.

            The over-reactors will over-react. The mitigators will under-react and talk of low levels. In between, I think there are many on this board who know what’s going on.

            Even if there is no collusion topsides (NWO and such) the end result is a collusion of collective stupidity that will be the end of us. It need not be a concerted and deliberate stupidity by a New World Order. It can easily be an unrecognized, disorganized and irrevocable result of a New World Order that is so blinded by their orgy of control in monetary and other spheres that they let “the big one” out without quite being aware of it. Now, it’s all damage control and hiding numbers.

            Japan, one of the U.S. “states” is a gonner. Any wake-up call there?

            It really is a gonner – try live there, have children and pretend you have a future there. You don’t. You’re being a bloody fool by even thinking of living anywhere near Japan. And, those living there now have only themselves to blame for not putting the energy in to find out what is going on.

            We’ve all been nuked badly, and it is getting worse by the minute.

            If there is a solution to Fukushima, then let’s see the same solution for Chernobyl.

            There isn’t one.

            It gathers in the troposphere and will rain on your head as long as you live.

            You’ve seen the cancer epidemic, genetic mutations and decreasing sperm counts in this age. Radiation doesn’t just cause cancer, it causes every nasty thing you could ever dream of, and its work has just begun.

            Nobody can talk about it.

          • James Tekton James Tekton

            Wowie Ka-powie!

            That was well said and expressed. Tells is like it is.

            Thank you brother for this great synopsis of what it is, and it is what it is.

            What do do? Live in the fullness of life each and every day. In each and every breath. By the time the mass mind wakes up to what is really happening, it will be too late. Staring us in the face is the “On the Beach” scenario.

            Barring some miracle, we may just watch this get worse and worse as more and more truth surfaces. The really sad part is how dumbed down the japanese people are. Same in america. Someone asked me if I thought I was smarter than most people. I reluctantly said I was. I can easily see the dangers of radiation and the evil of what ever it is that is destroying the environment and the human civilization. Hint: they call money god.

            Most don’t want to know the truth, nor care too. This apathy and pessimism is the death of america/No. Hemisphere as we knew it, and is well fed by the lame stream media liars and deceivers. Until these media hack yellow journalism hellions are taken out of the equation, it will never change.

            Find peace within and let not inner conflict rob you of your vital life-force energy. You will need it later to just find food and good water as you perish. Like a tree that falls in the remote forest, no one will even care or notice.

            And then there were none.


    • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

      High-altitude nuclear explosion

      List of artificial radiation belts

      High-altitude nuclear explosions
      by Wm. Robert Johnston
      last updated 28 January 2009
      Effects of high-altitude nuclear explosions, summary:
      The familiar immediate effects of low-altitude nuclear explosions are flash, blast, and prompt radiation. Effects are significantly different for explosions above most of the atmosphere. Since blast is the shock wave transmitted through air, this is attenuated with height and is absent for explosions beyond the atmosphere. Flash is the visible and infrared light pulse from the fireball formed from heated air. With higher altitude, the fireball formation is significantly altered with consequent effects on flash. Prompt radiation includes ionizing radiation from the nuclear reactions in the warhead and decay of fission products left by the explosion. These radiations, particularly neutron radiation, are significantly attenuated by the atmosphere for low altitude bursts. For explosions above most of the atmosphere, ranges of prompt radiation effects are greater than for atmospheric bursts.
      Several effects are relatively unique to high altitude bursts:
      • Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is important only for high altitude bursts. For such detonations, ionization of the upper atmosphere can produce a brief intense pulse of radio frequency radiation which can damage or disrupt electronic devices. For explosions above most of the atmosphere, EMP can affect large areas.
      • Ionization of the atmosphere from explosions in the atmosphere can interfere with radar and radio communications for short periods.
      • Charged particles produced by explosions above the Earth’s atmosphere can be captured by the Earth’s magnetic field, temporarily creating artificial radiation belts that can damage spacecraft and injure astronauts/cosmonauts in orbit.

      • Nice post annie

        That was a hint of what I see going on

        • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

          Are all these copper needles still there?
          Earth’s Artificial Ring: Project West Ford

          “The project itself was a virtually unqualified success. Though the first launch ended in failure, the second launch went without a hitch on May 10th, 1963. Inside the West Ford spacecraft, the needles were packed densely together in blocks made of a napthalene gel that would rapidly evaporate in space. This entire package of needles weighed only 20 kg. After being released, the hundreds of millions of copper needles gradually spread throughout their entire orbit over a period of two months. The final donut-shaped cloud was 15 km wide and 30 km thick and encircled the globe at an altitude of 3700 km.
          “Copper Dipoles from Project West FordThe West Ford copper needles were each 1.8 cm long and 0.0018 cm in diameter and weighed only 40 micrograms. They were designed to be exactly half of the wavelength of 8000 MHz microwaves. This length would create strong reflections when the microwaves struck the copper needles, in effect making them tiny dipole anttennae each repeating in all directions the exact same signal they received….”

  • Today someone posted up a very eery video of one of the Fukushima workers pointing into the TEPCO live cam:


  • 4.9 earthquake strikes near site of Japan’s ancient super-volcano *VIDEO*
    KYUSHU, Japan – Anytime a moderate earthquake strikes near a super-volcano, we take note. A 4.9 magnitude earthquake has struck south of the ancient super-volcanic Aira Caldera located in Kyushu, Japan. Aira Caldera (ja:姶良カルデラ Aira-Karudera) is a gigantic volcanic …

  • No cesium detected in seawater near No.3 reactor

    The operator of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant says no radioactive cesium was detected in seawater around the No.3 reactor on Saturday. This was the first time the substance was not detected since the monitoring began.
    Cesium levels around the No.2 reactor were down slightly from those detected …

    pants on f i r e

  • Quake-prone Japan looks at geothermal energy

    HACHIMANTAI — The forces that make Japan one of the world’s most quake-prone and volcanic countries, and sparked a nuclear disaster, could become part of its long-term energy solution, experts say.
    Steam and hot water billow and gush from deep below the ground at Japan’s tens of thousands of famed hot springs and could be harnessed to drive turbines that generate electricity in a clean, safe and stable way …

    Right track now but didn’t they promote nukes this way also ? “clean, safe and stable way”

  • Jebus Jebus

    Why the Fukushima disaster is worse than Chernobyl

    Japan has been slow to admit the scale of the meltdown. But now the truth is coming out. David McNeill reports from Soma City

    Monday, 29 August 2011

    Yoshio Ichida is recalling the worst day of his 53 years: 11 March, when the sea swallowed up his home and killed his friends. The Fukushima fisherman was in the bath when the huge quake hit and barely made it to the open sea in his boat in the 40 minutes before the 15-metre tsunami that followed. When he got back to port, his neighbourhood and nearly everything else was gone. “Nobody can remember anything like this,” he says…….


  • Jebus Jebus

    Fukushima No. 4 unit explosion caused by hydrogen leak from No. 3

    TOKYO (Kyodo) — Tokyo Electric Power Co. has found evidence that the March 15 explosion at its Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant’s No. 4 reactor unit was caused by hydrogen that had flown from the adjacent No. 3 unit, officials said recently.

    When it measured on Thursday the radiation levels of filters of exhaust pipes from the No. 4 and the No. 3 unit before a common exhaust stack, the utility found evidence indicating radioactive steam and hydrogen had flown into the No. 4 reactor building, in an opposite flow from usual, the utility officials said.

    The radiation was 6.7 millisieverts per hour near the junction but fell to 0.5 millisievert and 0.1 millisievert at the approach to the building, they said.

    The plant operator known as TEPCO initially believed the explosion at the No. 4 unit was caused by hydrogen gas produced by the exposure of fuel stored under water in a pool in that building. But TEPCO officials said the new evidence points to the possibility, first suspected in May, that hydrogen gas had flown from the No. 3 unit as the fuel was not particularly damaged.

    (Mainichi Japan) August 29, 2011


    • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

      Thanks, Jebus. I wasn’t aware that they had admitted to an explosion in #4 before now (even though it was obvious that an explosion had occurred–I suspect that it looked similar to the nuclear explosion of #3). I had thought that the only thing they admitted to in #4 was a fire.

      Also, it seemed to me in Arnie’s last video that he was talking about ALL the spent fuel pools in trouble. First I had heard of an official acknowledgement that Common Spent Fuel Pool was included in meltdown or an explosion.

    • Can I be the first to call b.s.?

      This is a piece that is aimed to Lower the dangers in the fuel pool.

      First off. The fuel is constantly fissioning, Which indicates that the rods are Above temps of 100 deg…

      thats because water wouldn’t have a noticeable steam vapor at temperatures below 100c,

      If the temps are above 100c (which they are) then the cladding obviously melted.

      So the fuel obviously melted… secondly there is significant radiation / and gamma radiation isotope signatures in the fuel pool. Which also indicate that the fuel rods ARE DAMAGED.

      So if the roof of said containment was blown off by vapor. Then the cooling systems in the fuel storage pool Should otherwise have been spared. Thus the reactor 4 fuel pool wouldn’t be over heating… But being that tepco restored power within 48 hours of the initial explosion There is obvious signs that the fuel Was A. Overheating and damaged, and b. There was significant damage to the cooling systems in reactor 4…

      I couldn’t imagine hydrogen from reactor three being able to breach reactor 4, in any quantity large enough to damage the reactor 4 cooling systems. This being said. Its also very telling just by the visual evidence as to what created the whole in the wall in unit 4. The obvious culprit the fuel storage pool located just below the damaged portions of the reactors exterior housing.


  • Jebus Jebus

    Monday, Aug. 29, 2011

    Cesium in incinerator dust across east Japan

    High levels of cesium isotopes are cropping up in dust at 42 incineration plants in seven prefectures, including Chiba and Iwate, an Environment Ministry survey of the Kanto and Tohoku regions shows.

    According to the report, released late Saturday, the highest cesium levels in the dust ranged from 95,300 becquerels in Fukushima Prefecture and 70,800 becquerels in Chiba Prefecture to 30,000 becquerels in Iwate Prefecture.

    But even the lower levels in the dust exceeded 8,000 becquerels per kilogram in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma and Tokyo.

    The 16-prefecture survey covered 469 incinerator operators in Tohoku and Kanto from late June, and was reported to a panel of experts at the ministry that is discussing how to safely bury incinerator ash and dust with cesium levels above 8,000 becquerels per kilogram.

    Local governments have been instructed to temporarily store their ash and dust at disposal sites until the panel reaches a conclusion.

    The ministry said it will ask the prefectures to continue monitoring radiation levels in the material.

    Incinerator ash containing cesium was detected at seven facilities in Fukushima Prefecture, the report said.

    The Environment Ministry asked prefectures to monitor cesium levels after dust with 9,740 becquerels per kilogram was found at an incineration plant in Tokyo’s Edogawa Ward in June. Before that, the only prefectures that had collected and released such data were Gunma and Ibaraki.

    The other prefectures that took part in the survey were Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, Saitama, Kanagawa, Niigata, Yamanashi, Nagano and Shizuoka.