Japan Gov’t-funded Study: Fukushima has released up to 120 Quadrillion becquerels of radioactive cesium into North Pacific Ocean — Does not include amounts that fell on land — Exceeds Chernobyl total, which accounts for releases deposited on land AND ocean (MAP)

Published: June 30th, 2014 at 2:10 pm ET
By
Email Article Email Article
86 comments


Scientific Reports (Nature.com),  Mar. 4 2014: The total amount of decay-corrected 134Cs in the [subtropical] mode water was an estimated about 6 PBq [petabecquerels, i.e. 6 quadrillion becquerels] corresponding to 10–60% of the total inventory of Fukushima-derived 134Cs in the North Pacific Ocean. […] The decay corrected ratio of 134Cs/137Cs in soils has been calculated to be 1.0, which suggests that the total amounts of 134Cs and 137Cs released from FNPP1 were equivalent. […] the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the North Pacific remains uncertain, because it has been difficult to obtain sufficient samples of water, especially from subsurface and deep waters, in the vast North Pacific Ocean […] Estimates of the total 134Cs released to the North Pacific Ocean ranged from 10 PBq (direct discharge of 4 PBq + atmospheric deposition 6 PBq) to 46 PBq (16 + 30 PBq). Thus, the 6 PBq inventory accounts for 10–60% of the total release. However, the total inventory in the subtropical region derived from the activity in STMW [Subtropical Mode Water] may be underestimated, because CMW probably carried the radiocesium into the subtropical region, too […] The estimated inventory in the subtropical region (6 PBq or 10– 60% of the total inventory) is probably a lower limit of estimation because contribution of CMW [Central Mode Water]  was not counted. [...]

Funding: “This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid… from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan

Note: The study states that up to 46 PBq of 134Cs is estimated to have been released into the North Pacific Ocean from Fukushima Daiichi. Yet, it also states that the 6 PBq in the study area represents between 10-60% of the  total 134Cs released into the North Pacific Ocean. If the 10% figure is used, the total release into the N. Pacific would equal 60 PBq of 134Cs. The study also states the releases of 134Cs and 137Cs were equivalent, resulting in a total of 120 PBq into the N. Pacific. This total does not include releases deposited on land or in other bodies of water.

Chernobyl Comparison: A report by the Nuclear Enrgy Agency states that when more detailed deposition data eventually became available, the United Nations estimated the total Chernobyl release of 137Cs at 70 PBq. 134Cs is estimated to have been 53.7% of the 137Cs — approximately 38 PBq of 134Cs — resulting in a total of 108 PBq. Unlike the Fukushima total reported above, this does include all 134Cs and 137Cs releases from Chernobyl — not just what was deposited in the ocean.

See also: California Gov’t Report: Fukushima released up to 181 Quadrillion Bq of cesium, Chernobyl was 105 Quadrillion — Radioactive material to flow from Japan “for years to come”

And: Marine Chemist in Jan. 2014: Latest numbers I have are Fukushima has released 80 Quadrillion Bq of cesium-137 (Chernobyl estimated at 70 Quadrillion) -- "The radioactive plume itself has actually arrived... it’s already here" on west coast of N. America (AUDIO)

Published: June 30th, 2014 at 2:10 pm ET
By
Email Article Email Article
86 comments

Related Posts

  1. Gov’t report reveals Fukushima radioactive release much larger than Chernobyl — Japan reactors could have emitted nearly four times as much cesium-137 October 20, 2014
  2. Russian Study: Fukushima released 100 quadrillion becquerels of cesium into atmosphere… In just ONE day — About equal to Chernobyl’s total release August 29, 2013
  3. EU-funded Research: Fukushima atmospheric release of 210 quadrillion becquerels of cesium-137 used as upper bound in simulation — Chernobyl estimated at 70 to 85 quadrillion September 23, 2013
  4. Highest Estimate Yet: Fukushima about equal to Chernobyl, says US gov’t funded study April 3, 2012
  5. Gov’t Report: Fukushima released up to 181 Quadrillion Bq of cesium, Chernobyl was 105 Quadrillion — Radioactive material to flow from Japan “for years to come” — Fukushima radionuclides have now spread “throughout N. Pacific” May 20, 2014

86 comments to Japan Gov’t-funded Study: Fukushima has released up to 120 Quadrillion becquerels of radioactive cesium into North Pacific Ocean — Does not include amounts that fell on land — Exceeds Chernobyl total, which accounts for releases deposited on land AND ocean (MAP)

  • OldFool

    Well, at least they increased the amount that they are admitting too, even if it is still a substantial underestimate.


    Report comment

    • OldFool

      Keep in mind a few things – a small number of atoms of Cs-137 is at least 100,000,000 times more dangerous than the same number of atoms of very rare K-40. The bio-concentration factor for Cs-137 is about 3000 times in the meat of fish that eat other fish, based on the Savannah River studies. And one picogram of Cs-137 puts out over 3.2 becquerels. And one picogram of Sr-90 puts out almost 5.2 becquerels.

      It would be very helpful if they would dare to accurately estimate the total amount of Sr-90 that was released, but they are probably afraid of a panic if they released that info.


      Report comment

      • OldFool

        Actually, the Russians estimated about 100 Petabecquerels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were released in only one day on March 15, 2011, so this latest Japanese paper looks pretty seriously flawed if this latest Japanese paper were to be interpreted as saying at most 120 Petabecquerels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were released in total.


        Report comment

      • OldFool

        The fission product yield from U-235 is about 6.09% of Cs-137 and about 5.75% for Sr-90. So the number of atoms of Sr-90 produced by fission are almost as much as for Cs-137. And Sr-90 is more radioactive atom per atom than Cs-137. So the used fuel rods actually had somewhat more radioactivity from the Sr-90 than the Cs-137. The Sr-90 should be the greater focus of concern.


        Report comment

        • Radio Radio

          OldFool, i always appreciate your bringing your understanding to the issue of radioisotopes here to enews.


          Report comment

        • OldFool

          I have to modify my estimate. The fission product yield differs according to the fuel used. And some plutonium is produced and then consumed by fission in the original U-235 fuel rods as time goes by, leaving only about .8% Pu as the net yield. The fission product yield from plutonium fuel compared to U-235 increases the relative ratio of Cs-137 atoms produced compared to Sr-90 atoms, so I believe the used fuel rods mixed with extra plutonium will still have somewhat more radiation from Cs-137 than from Sr-90. The radiation from the used fuel rods originally only using U-235 will probably still have more radiation from the Cs-137 compared to Sr-90.
          But Sr-90 gets more bio-concentrated than Cs-137, so it is still more to be feared in food products.


          Report comment

        • Tim42

          Measuring only Cs-134 is a serious measurement flaw, normally reactors produce just a tiny bit of Cs-134, which is roughly 15x more radioactive than Cs-137.

          Cs-134 is mostly produced by neutron capture by non-radioactive Cs-133 (fission yield 6.79%), where just tiny fraction ~2% of Cs-133 will become Cs-134. I.E. 0.02*6.79% ~= fission yield of 0.14%(or less), since some of Cs-134 will have decayed back into Xe-134 & been off gassed while the reactor was still in operation.

          Measuring that much Cs-134, indicates at least 6.09%/0.14%)=45x more Cs-137 also escaped into the biosphere. Exact multipler numbers 45x to 220x depending on a variety of factors that remain unpublished.

          One last note: A significant amount of Radioactive Cs-135(HL 2.3 My) in excess that of Cs-137 also escaped containment along with Cs-134 and Cs-137.


          Report comment

      • name999 name999

        I have had the effects of Cesium 137 and I still believe that it is reversible from my own research.

        FIRST WE HAVE TO SHUT THEM DOWN to realize this for future generations..


        Report comment

    • Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via @AGreenRoad
      http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html

      This thing has not even warmed up yet.. It is just getting started.

      Japan has only seen the very tiny beginning of the horror show they have unleashed so far. They will experience more and more horrors as this goes along further.

      One positive for Japan? They saved the plant with the Fukushima 50, instead of the 1 million that Soviet Russia used.

      Now they are doing everything completely RIGHT, if their goal is to get the absolute worst results and fail in the absolute worst way.

      The total amount of water on site is now shrinking, and has been for months. Where is it all going? Hmmmmmm, it's a mystery. But the good thing is they need no more tanks.


      Report comment

    • Noah

      IMPORTANT NEWS: Strontium turns up in Hawaii's ground water

      In 2013 the Honolulu Board of water supply detected an average of 220 parts per million of strontium found in it wells. It published its finding in June 2014. In previous tests in 2011 and 2012 no strontium was detected nor reported. The 2014 report explains that strontium is naturally occurring, as it has naturally suddenly occurred in 2013 (first detection) and is now a permanent natural part of Hawaii's natural water, so naturally it is now "natural". No concern here.

      Mrs. Noah encourages all ENEnews readers to R.O. filter/purify their water, then finish the RO water with Zero water filtration as a final stage.


      Report comment

      • Cisco Cisco

        Board of Water Supply City and County of Honolulu

        2014 Annual Water Quality Report and
        The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR)

        "Strontium
        An alkaline earth metal that is found naturally in minerals. Air, dust, soil, foods and drinking water all contain small amounts of strontium. Ingestion of small amounts of strontium is not harmful. It is normally associated with radioactivity, but it is not. Strontium findings are also linked to other sources such as air contamination from milling processes, coal burning and phosphate fertilizers. The risk posed by strontium depends on the concentration ingested and on the exposure conditions. There is no evidence that drinking water with trace amounts of naturally-occurring strontium is harmful. Under the current round of UCMR3 testing, water systems nationwide are testing for “total strontium.” In other words, they test for strontium in all its forms rather than breaking it out into various isotopes."

        http://www.hbws.org/cssweb/display.cfm?sid=125062


        Report comment

        • Noah

          "In other words, they test for strontium in all its forms rather than breaking it out into various isotopes."

          Simple Question: Why did "natural" total strontium "in all its forms" appear in Honolulu water in 2013? In prior years there was none.


          Report comment

          • http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strontium

            Strontium mimics calcium and enters bones.
            But naturally occurring strontium would be a trace mineral in water emitting from the natural strata surrounding the water. As such strontium would have to be historically present. It doesn't just show up.


            Report comment

            • Noah

              "It doesn't just show up"

              The test by the Board of Water Supply detects strontium as an aggregate, non radioactive strontium as well as S-90 are measured totally with no distinction between the two. The basalt nature of an volcanic island such as Oahu is unique, rendering the deep groundwater relatively pure as the water is filtered down through volcanic rock. It takes about two years for rainwater to filter down through solid layers of rock into the fresh water aquafir of the island. Hence, the C-90 from Fukushima showed up during the 2013 test, about two years after Fuku began its million+ year long nuclear eruption. To my knowledge, this was the first time strontium has been detected since testing began decades ago.

              The whole point is this, defend yourself.


              Report comment

        • razzz razzz

          They pretty much admit that they are not going to breakdown the test results, at least publicly. Natural strontium is going to be less active per volume than newly produced strontium from Daiichi. Plus newly produced manmade strontium is not traveling alone in fallout so there is a signature of other isotopes to confirm manmade or natural radioactivity.

          For making drinking water amounts, steam distilling is about as pure water as you are going to get without worrying if your water filter system is catching all the nasties or becoming contaminated themselves.


          Report comment

      • zogerke zogerke

        Mrs Noah (wasn't that Naieema?)
        What is Zero water filtration?


        Report comment

    • Jinxie1953

      Good Evening all, I'm in New Zealand and have been reading all your posts with great interest. I am concerned re the importation of food from Japan and have emailed the MP in charge to no avail. However West Auckland Radiation Monitor have just released some info from the Dept of Toxicology here that I can't make head or tail of. It is a Facebook site and I don't know how to give you the link. I wonder if any of you might have the time to go to FB and read the post which is presented with a rather clever cartoon about shifting the goal posts on dangerous levels of radiation. Thanks


      Report comment

  • Ontological Ontological

    All the pretty but deadly Cesium in the environment. Plenty went into the air also, I have many images I have taken or obtained from the internet, of the damage. These are low balled numbers I am sure however. Also I wonder if this accounts for the R3 detonation, and material from all the dust that went into the atmosphere, and the result of more being made from the U/PU dust.


    Report comment

    • ABSOLUTELY NOT!

      You will notice this is NATURE, not the IAEA that is saying this.

      The OFFICIAL report is still 10% of Chernobyl. Nothing has changed. NOTHING.

      There was no melt out.
      There was no plutoniumm MOX fuel explosion.
      There was no spent fuel pool fire.
      There was no spent fuel pool melt out.
      There was nothing harmful going over Japan, and it never harmed anyone, nor kill anyone.

      10% of Chernobyl total.. this has not changed OFFICIALLY.

      These other organizations can make up whatever they want, but the nuclear experts run the show and make fun of all of these other sources.. put them down, call them quacks, crazies, charlatans, kooks, fear mongers, etc.


      Report comment

  • "This does not include releases deposited on land or in other bodies of water." – above note

    Additional Note: Nor does it include all of the OTHER deadly/hazardous ISOTOPES. Why is that? Seems important.

    IMO – Again, the number crunching seems irrelevant to me. Comparisons to Chernobyl are a farce.

    I am pretty sure a 1st grader can tell the difference between…

    1. A SINGLE meltdown where 5000 Russian liquidators sacrificed their lives to dig a tunnel in order to stop the melting core.

    or…

    2. The TRIPLE out of control ongoing simultaneous meltdowns at Fukushima located next to an ocean in a tsunami zone where they are unable to locate or intercept the cores.
    :shock: (over three years now)

    The only thing keeping it from becoming far mega-worse is the constant dumping of water in a 'Hail Mary' attempt to keep the event from escalating to the point of full facility abandonment.


    Report comment

  • PhilipUpNorth PhilipUpNorth

    Correction:

    Cesium releases now total 690PBq from the 3 underground rogue nuclear reactors in the ground under FDNPP.

    This equals a TOTAL, 100% RELEASE OF CESIUM from Reactors1,2,&3.

    It is ALL in a completely UNCONTAINED state.

    This figure does not include the Plutonium, Uranium, and all the other isotopes released as gasses, soot, contaminated groundwater, and fuel particles that rained down over the land and water when Unit3 exploded, and which have been emitted since by the smoking and steamng nuclear reactor ruins.

    This figure is a measure of cesium only.

    The cores, called "corium" singular, or "coria" plural, are still fissioning in the ground under the plant.
    We can tell by the high (and increasing) levels of Iodine-131 being produced under the FDNPP.
    Iodine-131 has a half life of only 8 days.
    Iodine-131 appears only when active fission is occurring.
    The sewage sludge as far away as TOKYO contains high levels of Iodome-131 today, in late June, 2014.

    BOYCOTT THE TOKYO OLYMPICS!
    Evacuate TOKYO!

    How is the "decommissioning" going, eh, TEPCO? ;)


    Report comment

    • PhilipUpNorth PhilipUpNorth

      Correction: "Iodine-131" not "Iodome". Damn Ipad KB.

      By the way, entire Internet seems to be down today, from any device.
      I can't get anything so harmless as a weather app to load.

      Probably just the NSA installing their new spy software.
      But don't worry.
      Our right wing extremist Supreme Court will no doubt declare all NSA and other government use of your personal information "Constitutional".
      Hardly.
      Not legal according to any reasonable, non-partisan, reading of the Constitution.

      Celebrate now, Republicans and Tea Party.
      This day is a big win for billionaire business owners, and a big loss for employees and the unions.
      But know this:
      They will eventually be coming after every one of you, too.

      The Supreme Court is out-o'-control crazy, you betcha! ;)

      What would America be today, I wonder, if Al Gore had been President for those 8 years, and if the 911 false flag, and the patently illegal Iraq War had never happened?

      Bush/Cheney: Got away scott free using the US military to fight your lil' family war, didn't cha? ;)


      Report comment

    • Where are those multiple melted our coria TEPCO?


      Report comment

  • Cisco Cisco

    OH yeah, and not to worry.
    "No Fukushima radiation found in Alaska seafood"

    http://www.ktoo.org/2014/06/30/fukushima-radiation-found-alaska-seafood/

    And like, "the checks in the mail", right!


    Report comment

  • Cisco Cisco

    Oh yeah, and not to worry.
    "No Fukushima radiation found in Alaska seafood"

    http://www.ktoo.org/2014/06/30/fukushima-radiation-found-alaska-seafood/

    And like, "the check's in the mail", right!


    Report comment

  • "network's sensitive radiation detection sensors were overwhelmed by radioisotopes streaming out of the damaged reactors at Fukushima"


    Report comment

  • davidh7426 davidh7426

    Heads up peoples…

    Them there pesky quakes is tip-toeing towards Fukushima…

    Yesterday a 6.2

    M6.2 – 134km ESE of Iwo Jima, Japan
    2014-06-29 05:56:31 UTC

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000rnfx#summary

    Today a 6.2

    M6.2 – Bonin Islands, Japan region
    2014-06-30 19:55:32 UTC

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000rnx0#summary

    Tomorrow ????


    Report comment

  • We Not They Finally

    Their own internal report saying that it was "as bad as Chernobyl." Multiplied by how much exponentially? And since they CANNOT measure the oceanic contamination, plus the contamination through the atmosphere that THE REST OF US got,I'd say that "flawed" does not even begin to describe it. And BTW, who gets to apologize to the marine species that have already been extincted out, or keeps up with the ongoing mutations?

    Will the real figures finally stand up?


    Report comment

  • Cooter sally

    From the scientific article;

    "A low-pressure system traveling across Japan from 14–15 March 2011 was found to be effective in lifting particles containing 134Cs from the surface layer to the altitude of the westerly jet stream, which carried the particles across the North Pacific within 3–4 days." (39)

    39. Takemura, T. A numerical simulation of global transport of atmospheric particles emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Sci. Online Letts. Atmos. 7, 101–104, doi:10.2151/sola.2011-026 (2011).

    This is the only mention of airborne radionuclides. The other airborne parts of this report were of deposition into the Pacific.


    Report comment

  • We Not They Finally

    Well, the radionuclides landed in a lot of places, not just the North Pacific. A dear friend of ours was suddenly diagnosed with TWO separate cancers, 2-1/2 years after the initial event — one in the lung, for a lifetime NON-smoker; the other thyroid, which is still a rare cancer. Doctors didn't know which to operate first and put the thyroid second. So that turned out to be stage four, though she is now doing much better thank God.

    But we were still mystified, because she doesn't live in the North Pacific at all — she lives in Pittsbugh!

    But now in a recent interview with Leuren Moret (I don't know how she got the data,) she said that not living on the West Coast doesn't necessarily protect — that it depends on current air patteens — and as a case in point, she said that with the initial plumes coming in, the two hardest hit places were one city in Florida, and… Pittsburgh!!

    We were distraught that this happened to our friend, but now at least we consider it a medical mystery solved. But the gall of the Japanese establishment thinking that this has just been confined to Japan?! We want the pack of them sent to The Haag. Unfortunately, wishing doesn't make it so.


    Report comment

  • zogerke zogerke

    i cannot not even take those numbers in. I just get "big".

    what does it take of radioactive isotopes, especially Pu, to snuff out life? "tiny"

    What a huge ecological equilibrium experiment we have embarked on, with ourselves and all our relations as collateral damage.


    Report comment

  • razzz razzz

    I guess they don't know what the total available inventory of radioisotopes is any more because the melts were fissioning on their own for a while (still?) and creating more radioactivity of unknown quantities. With explosions, ongoing exposure to open air (no containment) and erosion I think this is just the beginning of the possible total release numbers albeit not so much further airborne but ongoing underground releases which in part reach the surface/atmosphere and are no less deadly than existing Daiichi fallout that is already cycling in nature. Cycling in nature for the next 100 years before the half lives begin to taper off to somewhat less dangerous levels.

    Total inventory available for possible release? They won't even say how much fuel was left behind at Chernobyl or maybe no one knows that figure either.

    Would hate to think new radioactive products are being produced at this point in time. Bad enough anything exposed to or affected by the melts gets energized.

    Exposure to hot particles is a gamble. Totally random except higher exposure chances are a sure thing when reactors blowup.


    Report comment

  • StPaulScout StPaulScout

    "resulting in a total of 120 PBq into the N. Pacific" and counting. The radiation continues to leak into the ocean at astounding levels. They found reactor fuel bits up to 60km away. That means a shit load went into the Pacific right off the bat. It will decay and irradiate the Pacific from where it sits.


    Report comment

  • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

    And that is where the fish will eat it.. :(


    Report comment

  • ~Beware The Evil Wind~

    Don't believe a word the Japanese government says they are duckface liars with frogs spewing from their mouth, lie after lie, after lie. Prostitututing themselves for their corporation G_d.

    General Electric Hitachi knew they were selling faulty reactors to TEPCO, actively financed the reactor one to key handover. They are the guilty party, they are the destroyer of worlds. Any entity supporting atomic energy (weapons manufacfuring) is a traitor to the human race. Prostitutes of Pluto.

    Corporations are paedophiles of your children's future. They poison you with prosaic water (flouride), dump their waste chemicals into your food, water, cigarettes, the ocean. When you support them you actively participate in your own murder.

    You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free.

    Passive resistance to corporations is how to conquer the devil. What do they love more than anything? Then starve THEM of their corrupt joy!

    If you are forced to use atomic power then use LESS of it. They will go broke and you will have your say. Everyone can do something.


    Report comment

  • reaiege

    Unbelievable…… My friend Lucy has just married to a handsome black man.
    They met through ~~ ♥M i x e d L u v. Ćom ♥~~Here is the best, largest and most successful Interracial online dating site for black and white singles share your life and love with friends online. it is a nice dạting service for Interracial singles to find their romantic soul mate.. You can meet (lawyers,busy professionals, CEO,benefactors. models, celebrities, etc….). If you are single ,have a try.
    xcbxcb


    Report comment

  • So we get the plutonium reported a few days ago and now we get the cesium in the ocean. More then Chernobyl? Will they start to admit that finally?

    Working at the fish plant. Biggest Halibut was over a hundred pounds. Wonder how long that fish has been in the Pacific.
    Bio-accumulation of beta, gamma and alpha radiation in species being eaten by other species. Do you think they have a handle on it? I can tell you from the trenches that no testing is done. We fillet it up here in Canada and send it down to a Wal-Mart near you somewhere in USA. I saw three species of Northern Pacific fish basically unloaded from a boat, processed, boxed and sent on a truck south of the BC/Washington state border. Totally clean facility but no testing of anything. Fresh fish from the Pacific.

    Happy Canada day and Fourth of July for you Southerners.


    Report comment

  • Jebus Jebus

    Overheard at the State of Alaska, Dept. of Fisheries,

    when they released their sudo study to the public,

    "Let's Go FISSION!"


    Report comment

  • Ron

    "This total does not include releases deposited on land or in other bodies of water."

    Are they talking about just what was (and is still being) released directly into the water? A lot of it went into the air then was rained back into the sea.

    By the way, I was getting an error message when I tried to log in before.


    Report comment

  • dunkilo

    I know some mental health workers,they say mental issues are a epidemic in America over the last 3 or so years.They are having to turn people away .Does anyone have info about radiation affecting mental health? It rotts everything I know of ….


    Report comment

  • Ron

    Here's the error message:

    404 Not Found
    The server can not find the requested page:

    dl-572-92.slc.westdc.net/wpblocked.html?redirect_to=http%3A%2F%2Fenenews.com%2Fjapan-govt-funded-study-fukushima-released-120-quadrillion-becquerels-radioactive-cesium-north-pacific-ocean-include-amount-deposited-land-higher-total-amount-released-chernobyl (port 80)
    Please forward this error screen to dl-572-92.slc.westdc.net's WebMaster.

    It appears when I click the "You must be logged in to comment" link at the end of comments, but not when I click a "Reply" link after someone comment.


    Report comment

  • dosdos dosdos

    The total release from Fukushma Daiichi in March 2011 is in the exobecquerel (1000 petabecquerels) range. My guess is, that while the bear's share of the release was neon, the cesium levels stated here are a little on the light side.


    Report comment

  • General User General User

    dosdos: I am still new here, and must thank you. I am learning just how bad this really is.
    Your post "{large}…share of the release was neon". has become another nugget of knowledge.
    More detail for us novice at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neon.
    Perhaps this neon is plentiful enough to add to obewanspeaks 'pink clouds'?, NO Half Life=forever+
    On June, 28th I saw first hand the Cs137 in storm clouds of Western PA. passed over me and rained out in NE suburbs of Pittsburgh, PA.
    Peace All


    Report comment

  • rogerthat

    well, i suppose it's a start. bigger than chernobyl, where, says wikipedia:

    ''the majority of the radioactivity present in the core was retained in the reactor.''

    ''50 to 60% of all core radio-iodine in the reactor, containing about 1760 PBq (1760 × 1015 becquerels), which in mass units is 0.4 kg of iodine-131, was released''

    ''20 to 40% of all core caesium-137 was released, 85 PBq in all''

    ''An early estimate for total nuclear fuel material released to the environment was 3 ± 1.5%; this was later revised to 3.5 ± 0.5%. This corresponds to the atmospheric emission of 6 t of fragmented fuel''

    Correct me if i am wrong. They appear to be saying that Chernobyl released 6 tonnes of nuclear fuel material to the environment, or an upper limit of 3.5 per cent of the nuclear fuel in the reactor.

    So the question is, how much nuclear fuel was there in Fukushima's four destroyed nuclear reactors and their fuel pools, how much has been released to the environment, and how much ''remains''. Then ask yourself, was this bigger than Chernobyl and, if so, how many times bigger?


    Report comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.