Japan Journalist: Plutonium escaped Fukushima reactors as gas, it was a colossal 9,000ºF inside — Can’t be detected with Geiger counter — Terrible things are looming for the children, they must be evacuated yet nothing’s done… This is a “criminal nation” — I’m worried (VIDEO)

Published: October 16th, 2013 at 10:52 pm ET
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Title: Takashi HIROSE
Source: Yonaoshi 3.11
Date: Mar. 8, 2013

Transcript Excerpts

At 0:45 in

Hirose Takashi, journalist/former engineer: As we speak, radioactive material is seeping through Fukushima’s ground. It makes its way underground, reaches the ocean, to finally end up in the sky.

This kind of fact does not make the news, so everyone forgets about it. If that was talked about every day in the news, the Japanese population couldn’t ignore it. […] In my opinion mass media bear most of the responsibility for it. […] Incidents happen because mass media never take the problem seriously.

The problem with contamination is that we can only measure it within items surrounding us, in the soil, the ground. A lot of people today own a Geiger counter, but it can only report airborne particles, it only measures Gamma rays. In fact, when researching the radioactive content out from the reactors, and its dispersion, we do not find everything.

It was about 5,000ºC [~9,000ºF] inside the reactors. This was a temperature of colossal magnitude. The uranium and plutonium took on a gas form to escape. I can find all that based on my calculations, but none of this can be detected using a Geiger counter […]

No one even measures the strontium level. The strontium is the scariest of all. It penetrates and stays resident in bones, causing leukemia. This is particularly dangerous for the growth phase of children exposed today.

For children living near contaminated areas like Fukushima, we have to immediately set up a plan for their evacuation. […]

Before Japan lost the war, we organized group evacuations. We managed the escape of children from dangerous areas […]

This is something that must be done now. But the country does not do anything about it. For that I am calling this country a criminal nation. If we do not act, terrible things are looming for those children. I am worried.

Watch the clip of Hirose here

Published: October 16th, 2013 at 10:52 pm ET
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124 comments

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124 comments to Japan Journalist: Plutonium escaped Fukushima reactors as gas, it was a colossal 9,000ºF inside — Can’t be detected with Geiger counter — Terrible things are looming for the children, they must be evacuated yet nothing’s done… This is a “criminal nation” — I’m worried (VIDEO)

  • Kassandra

    And every other nation that knows what is happening and remains silent is a criminal nation as well.


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  • Jack Jack

    The "leaders" of the technological superpowers will go down in history as the men who ignored the obvious and important. Not leaders at all. Keep hoping?


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    • charlie3

      It's not just the governments of various nations that are guilty of ignoring and covering up the reakity of fukushima, and not just the leaders of those nations who are guilty either, and it's not just the media and the scared scientists and bought-off academics.
      Human beings don't want to hear unwelcome news. Just look at your friends, fmaily, co-workers, neighbors, etc.


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      • …you're right, i was thinking that last night…
        ……breaks my heart to think of all the fish in their glorious ride thru the great pacific waters….dying, do you think fish cry?…i do, i really think they do…


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        • Slingerss Slingerss

          I know Dolphins cry. I work in ICU for Dolphins and Sea Turtles. Anyone that says animals don't suffer has never seen a Sea Turtle come in after a shark attack…… I'll be watching for these marine animals to start coming in with lesions. When that happens, I'll know I am doomed right along with them.


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  • TheBigPicture TheBigPicture

    Plutonium travels thousands of miles in wind .. there's no running from it.

    Also, please stay mindful that Geiger counters only show a "tiny fraction" of what's in the air, water, soil and food.

    Access to stronger detectors are needed. And ultimately, affordable ones, that could actually show whats going on.


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    • We Not They Finally

      That's part of what has always been super-scary here. There are 1,946 radionuclides, a mix of alpha, beta and gamma emitters and many with crazy-long half-lives. And almost no one is measuring INTERNAL emitters, which is much of what develops into cancers and other illnesses. And no one CAN measure all the air, all the water, all the soil.

      Much less trace the damage to its source. Apparently even in the U.S., it is difficult or impossible to get cancer registries from areas downwind from NPP's. So how to say that a health epidemic in the U.S. will have been caused by what's happened in Japan thousands of miles away?

      It's not a simple science. We could say that "the devil is in the details," but I prefer just to say that "it's the devil." At least they got one thing right: They named plutonium after the God of Death.


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    • Get a pancake style Geiger detector if you buy one.. They are much more sensitive and can even test food in a pinch, although not really made for that.


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    • WWJD WWJD

      I have the GQ GMC-200 beta/gamma geiger counter $85 on the filter intake of an air purifier for better detection rates. This unit runs 24/7 off the Raspberry Pi using custom software from http://www.NETC.com


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    • bo bo

      This is another paranoid thought.. but do you think it is possible that geigers could soon be tinkered with by government so it won't be as sensitive? Or geigers will become do expensive so nobody can get them? I hope not but I think it couldn't hurt to stay vigilant, and also to get a good one now while you can.
      I remember reading an article on fukushima diary once where a geiger counter manufacturer in u.s. was contacted by japanese businessmen with a proposal to make a new models that fit 'their needs' and that producer declined out of ethics. Also read on fuku diary that a Tokyo a store that carries the good models of geiger counters were receiving death threats (I read this a while ago so the details are murky… I'll try to dig it up)

      And pancake detectors.. they're not as expensive as they are by design, are they?


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    • A Geiger is a tool to indicate the presence of radioactivity. It very much DOES detect radiation in gaseous form – a.k.a. "airborne." Doesn't do alpha, but nuclear fuel emits a lot more than just alpha. If it's present, it's not hard to find.

      This person appears to be saying that because the fuel isotopes were vaporized, they were somehow rendered invisible to radiation detectors. That's garbage. I'd hate to think that people are making stuff up at this point about a situation horrible enough as it is in truth. Maybe it's a plea for help?

      Perhaps there's something lost here in translation?


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      • bo bo

        Joy…!!! Thank you always for being the voice of reason and clarifying things brick by brick.
        Hmmmm interesting about fuel isotopes being invisible to detectors. I will listen closely to japanese and compare to subtitles, see if there is indeed something lost in translation, but at the moment I'm on my way to work.

        I hope things are well with you.


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        • NoNukes NoNukes

          Chris Busby's THE LOW LEVEL RADIATION CAMPAIGN

          "We have said Geiger Counters cannot measure or detect the presence of alpha emitters like Plutonium and Uranium or beta emitters like Tritium and Strontium 90."

          http://www.llrc.org/fukushima/geigercounter.htm


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          • NoNukes NoNukes

            Alpha emitters, Geiger Counters
            - a clarification on monitoring for radioactive pollution

            The principal alpha-emitting nuclides of interest are Plutonium and Uranium. To all intents and purposes only specialised and expensive scintillation counters like the DP2 Elektra can detect them in the environment. Even then the detector window must be within 2cm of the radioactive particle. You won't do this many times because the window on the DP2 is so thin that a blade of grass will make a hole in it, and then it has to be repaired. Cheaper (but still costly) instruments such as the Gamma Scout which claim to detect alphas might possibly have some marginal response if a particle was on the detector window, but you will still have no way to tell what it was responding to. Gamma signals will swamp any alphas anyway. http://www.llrc.org/fukushima/geigercounter2.htm


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            • Deal is, the alpha-emitters of most concern also release gamma and beta when they decay (and emit those alphas). Beta-emitters like cesium, strontium, etc. also emit gamma when they decay (and emit those betas). The conservation law is – to our knowledge – absolute. The sum of difference between the bound energy in a heavier atom when it transmutes by decay (or fission) into a different elemental atom is the energy released as particles and electromagnetic energy [gamma] – it's all got to add up exactly.

              Rule of thumb is to avoid anything that is emitting radiation, and anything emitting radiation you can detect as gamma may also be emitting alpha or beta you may not be detecting. Consider the lowly Coleman lantern mantle. Easily available and something I have used to assess whether or not my Geiger is working properly. The mantle contains thorium-232 [or yttrium these days]. Thorium-232 is an alpha-emitter. The Geiger won't read the alpha, but it does read the gamma that comes along with the alpha.


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          • Busby is wrong if he claims Geigers can't detect beta (or even alpha). There is a slide shield on the probe that covers or exposes the sensor. Closed, it will only detect gamma. Open it will detect both gamma and beta (and energetic alpha, but won't differentiate).

            The difference between the gamma-only reading and the beta/gamma reading is the amount of beta (and energetic alpha) present. If you want a ballpark figure on alpha, cover the open probe with a thin piece of paper, as this will stop alpha but not stop most beta. The difference between the full-open reading and the same reading with the piece of paper is your ballpark alpha reading.

            So you can use a Geiger to detect the presence of all three forms of radiation (but not neutrons). You can't use the Geiger to get a truly accurate alpha reading, just a ballpark. And you'd need the energy level scintillator to identify the isotopes.

            If you are seeing beta (especially in air or on table/counter surfaces), wear a filter mask and take serious precautions to prevent it from settling on food/drink. If you are seeing alpha, take yourself and family and pets someplace else for the duration.


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            • JoyB, I know you have industrial experience and are far wiser then me when it comes to nuclear. I have a geiger counter and have done my own research and I am under the impression that counters that detect alpha have a thin mica window which allows alpha to enter. My personal counter is a Soeks which does not have this window and folks tell me it measures mostly gamma and some beta. Knowing nothing about geiger counters the SOEKS might not have been the best choice looking back. Count is converted to a µSv/hr reading. However it is much more durable then an alpha reader with its thin mica window.
              What you are saying is different to my understanding are you correct with the caveat "depending on the model"?


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              • Joy if my detector only reads gamma putting a piece of paper over detection window won't matter as gamma goes through paper and the alpha doesn't but doesn't get detected anyway so the reading would stay the same. I have a cheap model. Of course I appreciate that if a rain of plutonium dust fell on me my detector would report higher gamma readings from decay of plutonium and I would know somethings up, as per what you said.


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                • You are correct that gamma goes right through paper, as it goes right through the metal of the probe's window-slide shield. When the shield is open (for the beta/gamma reading), it is also reading gamma. Which has to be subtracted from the total open-shield reading in order to get the beta reading.

                  The paper trick on the shield-open probe sensor also includes gamma, which again has to be zeroed out of the equation. The difference between the full-open beta reading and the paper over full-open beta reading will be (primarily) alpha. Gamma is being detected in all of these readings. With the probe shield closed, gamma is all you'd be reading (no beta or alpha). That's how you know what to subtract from the other readings.


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              • My Eberline Geiger-Mueller is one of those classic rectangle metal box dealies with detachable probe that looks like a fat hot dog. There is a metal slide, you twist to open or close and that exposes or covers the raw probe surface. The ion chamber is in the interior of the unit, is not the actual probe sensor. It can be set for straight read, or two orders of magnitude up or down. Depending of course on how 'hot' your source may be.

                Lots of manufacturers make Geigers these days, and there is no doubt some variation in accuracy. But all are calibrated to NIST standards, so are FAPP [For All Practical Purposes] equivalent. In mine, if the probe sensor's surface is presented open to the source, it measures (again FAPP) all radiation present. You have to subtract the gamma-only (closed probe) from the open to get the beta reading (will include alpha, but that's not usually an issue because it's not supposed to be present). If you do have reason to suspect alpha is present, the paper trick works pretty well to at least establish that much. Any difference between the calculated beta reading with and without the paper is your alpha warning.

                For truly accurate alpha reading, you'd need an alpha detector. It is true that short-lived isotopes can 'mask' longer-lived isotopes in high release situations. Xenon, for instance, can mask iodine until it significantly decays. Isotopic analysis is best there.


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              • Re-reading this, I am now wondering how accurate a mica barrier reading of alpha would be. Alpha won't even get past the layer of water covering your eyeball. Mica (of any workable thin-ness) would stop all but very opportune alpha particles – the ones that manage to slip through the mica without coming into contact with any of the mica atoms/electrons. Alpha particles are highly charged – they're drawn to atoms/electrons like magnets, don't slip through much of anything.

                Alpha detectors I've seen (admittedly a very long time ago) used entirely unshielded detector sensors, then do the calculations internally to return a read on alpha apart from beta and gamma (which is also present). The most accurate alpha detection would be by isolating the energy level of the emissions to tell you what isotope is doing the emitting. Those are darned expensive.

                I am still comfortable with my rule-of-thumb. If alpha/beta are present, put distance and/or shielding between me/mine and the source.


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            • NoNukes NoNukes

              Joy,

              You owe both Hirose Takashi and Chris Busby apologies. You say that they are "making stuff up" or are "wrong" when they say that plutonium and uranium can't be detected with a geiger and then say: "You can't use the Geiger to get a truly accurate alpha reading" yourself.

              They are not wrong and they are not making stuff up. You do no one favors by implying they are except for the nuclear industry.

              "No GM (Geiger Muller) counter can identify the type of radiation it is detecting. An alpha probe designed to ignore all other types of radiation is needed for alpha-only detection. That is what I used in Iraq and Afghanistan, where alpha decay is accompanied by gamma emissions.

              No GM counter can identify the nuclide source. A nuclide identifier is required (about $15,000 for a basic field portable identifier). I used an Exploranium in Iraq. We used gamma and beta detectors to find the hot spots and original sources and then narrowed in with alpha probes.

              The GM counters like you are asking about can only read EM pulses, not the "type" of radiation (i.e. it cannot specify that it is alpha). They are set to give an accumulated reading of decays and or translate (unreliably) into biological effectiveness." http://www.llrc.org/fukushima/umrc.htm


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              • Oh, for Pete's sake, No Nukes! Are you really attempting to claim that uranium and plutonium can't be detected with a Geiger counter? Really?

                Google the matter, see for yourself. Uranium and plutonium (and thorium, and every other alpha-emitter out there) emit gamma as well. That's just a fact, and once again, basic physics.


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                • NoNukes NoNukes

                  JoyB,

                  You twist the words of Hirose Takashi, Chris Busby and me. No geiger counter can tell me that I am breathing in plutonium.

                  "No GM (Geiger Muller) counter can identify the type of radiation it is detecting. An alpha probe designed to ignore all other types of radiation is needed for alpha-only detection. That is what I used in Iraq and Afghanistan, where alpha decay is accompanied by gamma emissions.

                  No GM counter can identify the nuclide source. A nuclide identifier is required (about $15,000 for a basic field portable identifier). I used an Exploranium in Iraq. We used gamma and beta detectors to find the hot spots and original sources and then narrowed in with alpha probes.

                  The GM counters like you are asking about can only read EM pulses, not the "type" of radiation (i.e. it cannot specify that it is alpha). They are set to give an accumulated reading of decays and or translate (unreliably) into biological effectiveness."
                  http://www.llrc.org/fukushima/umrc.htm


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                  • I have twisted no words. I have said that alpha and beta emitting isotopes can be detected by a Geiger, because alpha and beta emitting isotopes also emit gamma.

                    We both know a Geiger does not record isotopes in particular, as that is not what it is designed to do and not what it's used for. This is why I asked about a possible "lost in translation" thing here. A Geiger counter is a dose meter. It measures radiation dose, thus radiation levels in whatever you're measuring. Dose is not the same thing as isotopic concentration, it's just a measure of radiation. You have conflated them here, and I suspect the same conflation is what seems wrong with what Busby and Takashi are reporting.

                    Dose is not concentration, concentration is not dose. I have not anywhere here claimed differently. I am saying that radiation emitted by uranium and plutonium (et al. alpha-emitters) is indeed detectable by Geiger. Because it is.

                    If someone is worried about exposure, all that needs to be known is that radiation is present at X level to be exposed to. That is what a Geiger counter will tell you.


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                • NoNukes and JoyB. This difference of opinion just shows how technical nuclear issues are. The technical explanations necessary to properly explain whats going on does not lend itself to short sound bytes the 6 oclock news requires and that translates to nuclear ignorance allowing the industry to get away with what it does. Your both right. Joy, I did not know that plutonium also gave off gamma radiation. But it sounds like you are not up to speed on modern detectors. If you haven't, click on my name and see a short video of a multi pixel photon counter that only measures gamma radiation but is sensitive enough to measure energy levels and identify isotopes. Affordable if you already have an iPad. NoNukes, obviously your understanding comes from military experience where identifying alpha precisely is important. That knowlege has to be respected. I think your both drawing from experience in different worlds. But I dig what Joy is saying. If a block of plutonium is found in my backyard my Soeks counter will show high readings but I won't know the exact nature of the radiation but I will know to run.


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                  • My understanding is that with a higher end consumer type geiger counter that specifies it reads alpha you would take a measurement then block the window with aluminum and the reading would be less and the difference of the two numbers would give you a beta count and then expose the mica window on the alpha units take a count then block mica with paper and take a count and then that difference would give you an alpha count but since an inch or more of air blocks alpha this is still not practical for anyone but a hobbyist. Bluntly put a Mickey Mouse attempt. Obviously not the way the military does it. I'm replying also due to lurkers who may read all this. The technicalities of reading radiation are huge and no geiger counter will tell you if your food is radioactively safe. This is probably a conversation for report your rad readings thread but its important to note that two people, Joy and NoNukes who both have nuclear experience one in military and one in civilian nuke installations can have a difference of opinion as nuclear is extremely technical. What about the public in general? Nothing nuclear is taught in schools. One reason why it is such an uphill climb to even educate the public in the dangers of nuclear which I assume both Joy and NoNukes can agree. Peace all.


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                  • NoNukes NoNukes

                    Joy has been creating "straw men," and then using those straw men to call Hirose Takashi and Chris Busby wrong and to say that they are making stuff up.

                    "The Straw Man fallacy is committed when a person simply ignores a person's actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position."
                    http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/straw-man.html

                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw_man

                    Hirose Takashi and Chris Busby both have long, documented records of anti-nuclear work. I can imagine that the nuclear industry would be happy to have them maligned in any way.


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                    • VanneV anne

                      Joy also says that there is no danger of the corium exploding. IMHO, in general, I consider anything she says as an industry plant. She counters everything the experts say and continually minimizes danger from Fukushima.


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                    • Wow. Anne, are you able to see the difference between less-than 5% and more-than 90% ? That is all you need to know about whether or not the corium can explode (like a fission bomb).

                      A fission bomb's uranium fuel is enriched to more than 90% purity of U235.

                      A nuclear reactor core's uranium or mixed oxide fuel is enriched to less than 5% purity of U235/P239.

                      All the coriums at Daiichi now include assorted metal and concrete they have melted into their mass, further diluting the less-than 5% enrichment. Which is also less because the U235 and P239 have been decaying for more than two and a half years. There is simply not enough of the explosive stuff present to make it explosive. That's very simple, and it is entirely true.

                      You do not have to like it. You should just accept it.


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                    • I find Joy a knowledgeable addition to Enenews. And thank-you for answering my questions, Joy. Hope to talk to you again. Just because Joy has a moderate opinion does not make her a troll. I believe a lot here enjoy her posts. Everybody has their opinions and I have not agreed with everyone in the past.

                      Joy gave reasons why the corium wouldn't explode explaining the difference of weapons grade plutonium to melted fuel rods. Many people said the corium would explode when it hit groundwater and I disagreed because the ground is too porous and pressure would be released before it could build to an explosion.
                      So far I'm right but why listen to the ne'er-do-well Canadian? Maybe it will explode. My point only is most of us are self educated nuclear non-experts and this subject is tough to understand. Joy is not saying there is no danger and Joy has explained her own experience watching "the boys" cover up three mile island so I doubt she is any type of nuclear apologist. Sunny day and I gotta bounce.
                      Peace all


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                    • VanneV anne

                      I am not arguing from a technological point of view.
                      I just find it questionable that someone who is not a nuclear engineer "knows" more than experts who have been in the field for decades.

                      My remarks aren't for you, but for NoNukes. I ignore everything you say and trust the experts.


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                    • VanneV anne

                      Sorry, that last remark was not for Mark, but directed to Joy.

                      It is obvious that Fukushima will never be remediated. The international community would have stepped in by now if there was anything that could be done.

                      The IAEA seems bent to build as many nuclear reactors across the world as possible, even though no country can any longer afford nuclear energy. Busy ants before the next disaster.


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                    • Anne, I was trying to correct the misconception being spread by the reporter's words that uranium and plutonium in gaseous form could not be detected. I have been entirely honest about the fact that Geigers don't identify isotopes, which is not their job. They do, however, identify radiation present, and both uranium and plutonium emit radiation. The Geiger will read that.

                      I strongly suspect that it's a reporter error on the technicality, and said so – "Lost in Translation." I showed how a Geiger could be 'tricked' into giving a ballpark alpha reading, so you'd know it was present. If alpha is present, you can bet your bippy there's alpha-emitters present. The big ones are uranium and plutonium.

                      I am sorry if I contributed to confusion by trying to explain this. I just didn't want to let pass the assertion that these alpha-emitters are "undetectable" without very expensive equipment. That, it seems to me, does more harm than good, because most people can't afford a specialized alpha detector and industry/government aren't honest about it.

                      Nobody needs a specialized alpha detector who doesn't work for the nuclear industry/government. All they need to know is that it's [likely or actually] present. Then they can take steps to protect themselves from it.


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                    • "You can bet your bippy" Whats a bippy? A baby bip. Whats a bip? A grown up bippy.
                      Here comes the judge Here comes the judge.
                      Laugh In was a product of a much more innocent time. Love the painted go go girls…….


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                    • You can bet your bippy that a cheap radiation detector showing higher then normal readings will give you more of a heads up then watching the evening news.


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                  • The difference here is indeed the technology, but digital is equivalent to analog if you're measuring the same things. Deal is, a detector that reads the precise energy levels of radiation for isotopic assignment is a different beastie than a detector that is reading electron disruptions (radiation 'hits') to a sensor surface.

                    A Geiger measures radiation 'hits' by counting displaced electrons. It won't tell you what emitted the radiation that hit your sensor, it'll just tell you that radiation is hitting your sensor. To find out what isotopes are present to emit all that radiation, we had a GeLi – a Germanium-Lithium photospectrometer – analyzing a filter or swipe sample and unrelated to the Geiger's dose level readings.

                    The GeLi scanner was certainly not portable, but was very accurate. Now they have portable detectors that do this. Yet a dose level reading is not the same thing as an analysis of exactly how much of what isotopes are present in the air or water you're testing. It is erroneous and misleading to conflate them.

                    If you want an exact profile of what's out there, run a timed air sample filter through a GeLi/equivalent. If you want an exact alpha dose level reading, use a nice alpha detector. IMO the public doesn't need an exact reading. If it's present at all, get the hell outta there.

                    I am offering a way to know if alpha is present with a Geiger counter, that's all.


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                    • In fact Joy the basic Geiger Mueller tube hasn't changed much except it can now be hooked up to software enabling conversion to µSv/hr, data recording hook up to computers and real time graphing on internet. Pancake tubes are more sensitive but less durable. But all other limitations are the same. This all comes down to a difference of opinion. We all have to accept differences of opinion amongst everyone here. I got into a big fight with Obeone Speaks a week ago which was very unproductive to the general cause and extremely poor judgement on my part.
                      We are all human. Anne and NoNukes are also entitled to their opinions which I also appreciate. Remember everyone there may be a hundred people reading our conversation right now so please act accordingly for the greater good. Sunny sunny day on the mountain and I am going to walk down to civilization. For sure gotta bounce Peace All


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                    • I hear you, Mark. Thanks.

                      We used paper and not aluminum foil because foil would block too many betas. Seems like that "ballpark" alpha reading would be too low, if you're really looking for alpha.

                      Alpha's a sort of unique beastie. It gives up all its energy the moment it comes into contact with any atom's outer electron shell (thereby blowing the atom to smithereens and disrupting the entire molecule and cell it's attached to if it's inside you). Right now, BOOM. It's highly charged, actually seeks out electrons, so it's not gonna go very far. There's quite a large spectrum for beta, which is also charged but doesn't blow its load all at once. Will ionize atoms here and there over a distance, but foil is really dense. Would block too many.

                      If the water on your eyeball will stop alpha flat in its tracks, foil is overkill.

                      P.S. Like the idea of not having to do all the math on paper before entering dose levels. Nice! The RM14 has a pancake probe. And an alarm! §;o)


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        • Thanks, bo. I am fine, especially now that my sick dog is finally responding to treatment and eating again. The trick to that was… [fanfare please] Chicken Soup! He's the best dog around, and the only way to keep bears away from yard, trash and livestock is a good dog.

          It could be a reporter's misconception, or a translator's. Japanese is not a very precise language where technical matters can easily be clarified in sub-clauses, and it doesn't map well to English in any case. Radiation (all forms) is released by unstable elemental isotopes. An isotope is an ATOM of said element. Vaporization does not destroy the atoms, it removes the matrix they had previously been part of and turns them loose as single atoms or miniscule collections of atoms smaller than dust.

          When an atom of any isotope does get destroyed, it occurs by decay or particle bombardment (like fission). It is then an atom (or two or more) of some other element(s). Radiation is the energy released from that destruction, which in technical terms is the transmutation of forms.

          …Because matter/energy can't really be destroyed (or created), it can only change form.


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          • mhocker10

            JoyB, I have spent about 1/2 my 40 years living within 5 miles of TMI… what area are you in in proximity of TMI NPP?


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            • I lived about 30 miles due south when it blew if you were a crow, in the southern end of York County. We got occasional waft-throughs if the wind was right (per the RM14 on the deck), but not that much all told. Between Stewartstown and Red Lion. My sister and hub lived in Lancaster (east). They went to florida, along with my younger sister, on our counsel. We sent our kids to Oklahoma.

              If you were not immediately adjacent to the river (within 5 miles, Goldsboro direction) or ~30 miles north-northeast (predominant wind direction), your exposure was minimal, as was mine. At home. 12-hour shifts on the island excluded, of course, but since most of the crap was going out the vent stack, or the vent gas header on the other side of the containment wall outside, the worst of it was settling more distant. If you're right underneath the big tall stack, it's probably not falling straight down on top of you.

              Since we were the ones keeping track of releases and doses, we had a big heads-up on those. Knowing further what isotopes were present, we knew what precautions to take per system-packing. Worst after Xenon was Iodine. We munched kelp tablets by the handful. Lots of bananas and broccoli and potatoes too, many Tums. Best to get your saturation levels from natural sources, I always say.

              Have you seen Steve Wing's cancer maps for TMI? That would give you a good idea based on where you live.


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              • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

                You, yours or others you know in the surrounding area or downwind with any heath problems since TMI?


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                • Couple of glandular issues, nothing dire. We left PA in June of '79 for northern New Mexico. Several localities since 1981, none within nuclear spitting distance of TMI. Knock on wood.


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                  • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

                    I am glad you are OK and you did the right thing! Other people were not so lucky, but then they didn't know or were not informed of the severity/harm potential.


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                    • We heard the scoop/rumors on the nuclear grapevine, because our investors were nukes. Corporate headquarters was in Whiteford [MD], which turned into Delta [PA] the next street over. We got all the latest gossip.

                      What we were being told when TMI2 melted down was horrendous – unimaginable for its time. When we got the summons to on-site duty, we knew for sure it was indeed that bad. We had all the training and experience, didn't have to deal with the system's in-built 'security' limitations.

                      We were publishers – The Press. That's why they came to us, it was really that horrendous.

                      We couldn't manage in the aftermath to get the forum for spreading the truth. The press didn't trust us because we were nukes. The nukes didn't trust us because we were the press. We did try, as best we could. In that not all of us survived to tell the tale. We know what they're capable of if their backs are to the wall. We always knew.

                      So it's kind of familiar that anne distrusts what I say here. I'm very used to it. Doesn't matter. I'm still telling the truth as I know it. Take or leave, per your comfort level. You've only your own health and wellbeing to risk on something that petty. "You" being once again, figurative.


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                    • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

                      I understand and it was a tough spot to be in and it still is and your contributions have all been appreciated here, at least by me and I find you to be very knowledgable and unafraid to speak your mind.

                      That is a good thing and you know what the world is for and it will be a world of hurt/pain/suffering before all is said and done.

                      This is the current window for at least to some rational/critical thinking to address what still comith this way! :)


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                    • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

                      oops..That is a good thing and you know what the world is "in" for and it will be a world of hurt/pain/suffering before all is said and done. :(


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                    • Gotta turn in for the night, but I've quite enjoyed today's banter. They aren't going to try and shut me up at this point in my life. They had their chance, blew it by targeting the wrong guy. Idiots.

                      I am an old lady now. My grandchildren are old enough to have families, though so far no greats. I grow food, wildcraft the abundant forest, make teas and tinctures, constantly marvel at how beautiful my chosen environs are. We chose to be here on purpose. We have never been sorry. And once again I'll state the "Lesson Learned" from taking on an industry with all the money and all the power in the world…

                      You can't make people care about what they don't want to know.

                      As true today as it's ever been… §;o)


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                • Our closest neighbors at the time waited to see what we'd do, since they knew about our nuclear connection. We left officially in June of 1978 to become publishers, due to our refusal to sign off on the new NRC requirements for security clearance, which basically signed our whole life [and privacy] away.

                  When we moved the kids and sister out, they told me they knew it was time to go. So they did, and were spared the worst of the contamination exposures.

                  Which is pretty good observation given it wasn't a very close-knit neighborhood. I'd do the same sort of watching if I'd been them.


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                  • Note that we didn't tell anybody directly (except my older sis and hub in Lancaster) to get the hell outta town. Even though we were no longer official nukes, and were never bound by the new security clearance criteria.

                    That's because such honesty on an interpersonal one-on-one or larger neighborhood grouping was verboten. Not allowed, just part of the nuke culture during the good old Cold War.

                    At the same time, our neighbors' watching for what actions we might take for our own household/dear ones was damned smart. I will forever hope it may have saved life and limb among our neighbors. We were just protecting us/ours based on what we knew.


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          • bo bo

            Ok.. reading all the comments I'm officially confused. So I will not comment on the whole issue until I feel I have sorted something out. Very big learning curve to climb here but I'm not going to give up.

            I'm so glad to hear of your dog! I hope he recovers soon and can run around again in the woods.


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            • MichaelV MichaelV

              It was about 5,000ºC [~9,000ºF] inside the reactors. This was a temperature of colossal magnitude. The uranium and plutonium took on a gas form to escape. I can find all that based on my calculations, but none of this can be detected using a Geiger counter […]

              I read this as the gaseous uranium and plutonium isotopes escaped; a Geiger counter couldn't measure how much, but if we knew what remains that amount could be calculated. Whatever was released into the atmosphere went over the Pacific Ocean or over the surrounding terrain.

              Your debate proves how technically challenging nuclear can be in one language. I now understand ( thanks to ENENews) that the IAEA supports/ promotes this dangerous technology worldwide.

              This thread was informative: I cannot wait to get a geiger counter, remove the sleeve, take readings, replace the sleeve and then calculate the alpha beta and gamma by what didn't penetrate a sheet of paper.

              These are the hobbies that cause good women to bolt…!


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              • Michael, if uranium and plutonium are getting out, they're part of the inventory being measured as having gotten out. They are not invisible. They emit radiation. Radiation detectors detect their radiations.

                What is so difficult about that?


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                • MichaelV MichaelV

                  I agree they aren't invisible… and are measurable. Something to do also with what you stated on the conservation principle.

                  An accurate and reliable data set wouldn't hurt either. A bit more empiricism than 'It's under control'


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                • hbjon hbjon

                  JoyB, in the famous gold foil test of an alpha emitter, do you recall how many atoms deep or thick the gold foil was? This could glean a lot of insight into the penetrating power of alpha radiation. We know that some of it was deflected back to the source and some of it was not. Does the average Geiger Mueller tube stop the radiation better than gold foil?


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                  • The foil on an end-window tube (probe) is typically 1.5 – 2.0 mg/cm^2 in density. 'Most' alphas in the 5 MeV range can get through it if it's very close to the source, but range in air is mere centimeters before it loses its energy and grabs a couple of stray electrons to turn into regular old helium. About 2% of alpha from decay-by-fission events will have energies in the 16-20 MeV range, those have much longer range and penetrating power.

                    My unit is really best for high-energy environments, with the chrome/steel probe casing, no end window. Though I have a pancake probe I can switch out with the RM14 if needed. I haven't needed it for practical purposes in the wake of Fukushima because I've got no pressing need to know exactly what came down in the rain. Just need to know how much of it's around (DPM) and how that looks for humans and other critters (dose/rate). Everything and all its bastard brothers got blown into the jet stream by Fuku. Anything that lives long enough to reach the Appalachians will be present, you don't want to be eating or drinking or breathing any of it if you can avoid it.


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                  • If I were seriously looking for alpha, I'd detach the probe and un-clamp from the metal housing, use the interior ion chamber itself to take the reading. Because the chamber has foil covering while the tube is metal (aluminum, I think). This unit doesn't have a sliding window in the housing because it's primarily for high radiation situations.

                    We had another unit with a sliding window under the ion chamber, better for alpha and beta. You could just set the thing down on your surface, the chamber less than a couple of centimeters from the source. Unfortunately, at some point over the years the foil got ripped, so it's now a display piece in a friend's drinking establishment. C'est la vie.

                    As I said, all you can get from the tube for alpha is a rough ballpark. That's enough for most any civilian purposes.


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      • myself i think the reference to 9000F is critical to the discussion…the author refers to his own calculations and any calculation based on that temperature must be more informative than the information provided to the world by the
        Japan/Tepco TwinSortium….
        and the endles proclamations by Rad Man Abe…
        …. where are numbers to tell the story of all these nuclear events…obviously it doesn't exist and it has nothing to do with geiger counters thar have been "turned back"….
        the world has been turned back from the horrible truth…
        they are lying rats and they haven't done a d@mned thing in hell
        brilliant people from all over the world have submitted endless suggestiong many so cheap they could have been implemented over night yet not one d@mned thing and now they plan to dismantle Unit4….hope and pray they don't do a damn thing…


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      • MichaelV MichaelV

        The problem is in the translation…


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  • razzz razzz

    I tried looking up the boiling point of plutonium before and it seems to vary from the sites I looked at which is kind of odd. I figured the boiling point was the same thing as turning to vapor. Probably why they found it recently in Denmark or in that part of the world. It was identified as being from Daiichi because the particles were so small that no other place on earth could have produced the element in such a miniscule form (at least that was the way I read it).

    Anyway, I have no doubt the reactors heated up quickly to hellish temperatures just before they blew up or down in the case of blowing out the bottoms of the reactor vessels. A weak spot in this design.

    Leads to the question of how much fuel vaporized and left containment and how much remains? Plus, how much new plutonium was created during some of the spontaneous fission until the melts were hit with boron?


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    • HoTaters

      Hi razzz, might the boiling point for Pu differ, depending on the particular isotope (238, 239, etc.) ? Maybe that's why you're getting differing answers. Just a guess.


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      • HoTaters

        You're right. Seeing the same thing.

        Boiling point, melting point, point at which it enters gaseous state all to be considered? Likely all different.


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      • razzz razzz

        HoTaters: Yeah, I was just trying to satisfy my own curiosity when looking into the melting point of plutonium and finding other elements of plutonium with their own specs too. Pu 239 Boiling point 3505 K, 3228 °C, 5842 °F. So this professor is thinking the heat range during the meltdowns was possibly up to 9,000 degrees F.

        Graphite (Carbon) Melting Point: 3823 K (3550°C or 6422°F). Graphite is used as 'seals' in the openings at the bottom of these reactors where the control rods pass thru, certainly was hot enough to melt them (seals).

        As I read about nuclear elements, I am always reminded that man re-created all these radioactive isotopes by fission of uranium. The radioisotopes once existed when earth was created but all had decayed away over the eons except some in varying miniscule amounts ex. Plutonium. Now we have tons and tons of Plutonium where before 1938-39 man had no Pu besides not having all the other newly created nuclear wastes. Progress?

        Interesting drawing (figure 4 Ionizing Radiation) of Radioactive materials lodge in the body. Says, "There is truly no safe dose, but the risks are small when the doses are small." Means that it takes longer to develop cancers not counting DNA damage. http://www.ccnr.org/Baker_Lake_summary.pdf

        Anyway, the more I learn, the dumber I feel.


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  • Some educated guesstimates are between 600 to 6000 pounds of plutonium was released during the disaster. But of course, it has not ended yet, and there is still a massive amount of radiation coming out even today, including plutonium, strontium, iodine, etc…


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  • We Not They Finally

    We should apparently watch for the reporter cited above in the future. Kudos to him for being so outspoken! God knows what he has to go through to get the word out.


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  • razzz razzz

    Until TEPCO tells us where the melts are, they can at least tells us what elements have been released all during this entire disaster from start to-date. Some Iodines are short lived and should have decayed away by now since they are only produced during fission…I won't hold my breath (maybe I should) until TEPCO releases all the data.


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  • dharmasyd dharmasyd

    The strongest opponents to nuclear power and weapons in Japan were the Hibakusha from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They opposed all things nuclear from way back in the 50s and 60s. They knew. They had experienced the horrors. They tried. So do not blame them. My Friend Shizue Hota and several others were strong in protest. There have been many who have tried.


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    • So true, and many Japanese treated them like lepers. They did not want to have anything to do with them, much less listen to what they had to say.

      Well, now all the Japanese are radiation refugees and downwinders, if not after 3/11, they will be soon due to the burning of high level radioactive trash across the whole country.

      They will have to deal with those same issues that they discriminated against the Hibakusha about…

      very soon, very soon… Radiation does not discriminate; it is a toxic internal timebomb with a 2-10 year fuse. Then it goes off.


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  • pure water

    See how plutonium must be handled:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=89UNPdNtOoE
    I post it mainly for the new people. Those who know work like this! And some of them told people to fight it with smiles, or that it is something like bananas…


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  • kill nuke before it kills you

    go to an NRC hearing

    Let them know we are not accepting lies anymore.


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  • Wyakin Wyakin

    Razz-you may not want to hold your breath, but instead stop eating. Our choice of poison appears to be the reality thrust upon all who live on this planet.

    Stock-agreed, the more we all learn, the more the lies and NRC nuclear- corporate co-conspiring enablers are revealed (BTW, like your blog).

    Dharmasyd-I also have friends who are first and second generation descendants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Several disclose that they have been scared to have children. The multi-generational mutagenic impact of this technology does not appear to be widely understood outside of the directly affected populations experiencing the consequences.

    All, not sure who posted this originally here on ENE(thank you), but worth reviewing if you have not seen it:

    http://pissinontheroses.blogspot.com/2012/01/weaponized-fukushima-fallout.html

    Additionally, a slightly dated (circa 2000) but useful review by Zoya Drozdova of the University of Idaho on a work edited by JW Healy which represents a set of articles that covers the “influence of plutonium chemistry on its behavior, the exposure pathways, the distribution, metabolism, and transport of Plutonium in the environment.”

    “Plutonium-Health Impacts for Man: A Review,” was sponsored by Los Alamos, so the information must be reviewed with that in mind, but has a useful summary of the data collected since 1975.

    http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/etox/resources/book_reviews/PU-REV.PDF

    Peace.


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  • harengus_acidophilus

    By the way:

    Why you refer to this legacy units "°F" and "lbs."?
    There are roundabout 200 nations in the world,
    but only 3 (three) are using this crap as legal units.

    For a better understanding, pls refer to SI-units.

    h.


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    • m a x l i

      I would like to express my support for your suggestion.

      From wikipedia: "By the end of the 20th century, most countries used the Celsius scale rather than the Fahrenheit scale, though Canada retains it as a supplementary scale that can be used alongside Celsius. Fahrenheit remains the official scale for the following countries: Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Belize, the Bahamas, and the United States of America and associated territories (Palau, Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands)."

      Nuclear power is a global problem. All nations, not only the US and a few minor island nations, need to take part and understand the discussion.


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    • eatliesndie eatliesndie

      I agree. Lets put an end the separatism.


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  • Sol Man

    It is impossible for most to understand the allure of the death wish, including me. At one time, a group of highly esteemed physicist phd's met and decided that they could make Pu, the nastiest of unnatural elements, and weaponize it, so millions of people can be maimed and killed. The we've got the neutron bomb as well. Knowledge + evil intent = bad story.


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  • Is there a consortium or task-force of scientists somewhere that can put the case to the UN or to Western governments? It is necessary to explain the dire situation and the urgency for immediate action to prevent the type of catastrophe that will happen if nothing is done about it or if we are too late.


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    • bo bo

      Hi Lawrence, sounds like you might be new to this..
      The UN is not only part of the problem, it IS the problem, the UN is the reason how this topic has been successfully silenced and people's pleas from Chernobyl, Fukushima has been ignored. By controlling public health information being disseminated in mass media through the WHO, they have been successful in carving out the common perception throughout the world that people who worry too much about radiation simply have 'radiophobia' and need to go see a psychologist. I highly doubt bringing this to the attention of the UN will get anywhere. Many have made multiple pleas in the past 2.5 years and we have heard nothing from them, except fake reports being disseminatef through the media 'WHO says everything is fine, there is currently no risk!'


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      • bo bo

        And is it possible to find a consortium of scientists who wants to lose their jobs…?
        I'm not trying to be negative nelly or shoot down your idea… just trying to describe fully what we are up against.


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        • Lawrence Whitmore

          Hi bo,
          thanks for your reply. Yes I am new to this. It sounds like we need to arrange a conference somewhere to really open up the problem. It also sounds like anyone with a science background who can appreciate the magnitude of the problem really needs to do what they can to promote it as a world problem that needs a world solution (i.e. international cooperation).


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          • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

            Lawrence, I am pretty sure that the Nuclear Powers to be and that would be all the world governments with Nuclear Technology are fully aware of the Fukushima problem.

            What you see now happening with the US health care system is a response to this problem that we here see clearly coming down the pike in the very near future…

            Herding will/should commence soon..


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          • bo bo

            Lawrence, you are so welcome.

            I think you have a good idea there, good communicators and people with a science background, not scientists that worry about funding.

            Another thing to keep in mind after that is the fact that ALL major media outlets are controlled by the nuclear industry. So even if you have a successful event communicating good ideas, it might not get any coverage.

            Again, not trying to shoot down your idea or be negative, trying to be proactive!


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            • bo bo

              I did not write to clear in above post – I meant, your idea to get a group together of people with a science BACKGROUND is a good idea, instead of trying to get actual scientists (who worry about funding and tenure) together.


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    • Arnie and several others are approaching the UN as we speak…

      Good luck to them, but do not hold your breath.. Well maybe for about 30 seconds or so..


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  • vital1 vital1

    It is criminal behaviour to allow this to happen to children, and no government is in the world should be allowed to do this. This is mass murder!

    ——————————————-

    The more people we educate, the sooner change will come. Get the message out there on how serious the Fukushima nuclear disaster is quickly, and efficiently. You don’t need to explain anything just distribute the lifesaver.pdf or create your own, hand it out, mailbox it, Facebook it, Twitter it, or email it. Think outside the box, put it on public notice boards, hand it out to people, or put it into letter boxes when you go for a walk.

    http://technologypals.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/lifesaver.pdf


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  • eatliesndie eatliesndie

    Hirose Takashi, I am worried also. But there is no chance of the Japan govt coming good….so, its up to the people to get together and get their children to hell outa there! The govt does not care to help, for the affected people are now a liability and would better serve the govt if they were all dead.


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  • markww markww

    I wanted to throw this out here for everyone. I did not want to put it someplace people would not read but I send stories into the web site and do not hear anything.

    PEOPLE THESE VEGGIES WILL PROTECT YOU FROM NUCLEAR RADIATION.

    http://www.fromthetrenchesworldreport.com/these-vegetables-can-protect-you-from-fukushima-radiation/61682

    MARKWW


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  • If Plutonium 293 is $4000 a gramme surely locals in the Fukushima area would be trying to gather as much of it as possible to make a few bob out of it.


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  • If Plutonium 293 is $4000 a gramme surely people in the Fukushima prefecture would be tempted to collect as much of it as possible to make a few bob out of it.


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  • Heart of the Rose Heart of the Rose

    Then the Plutonium also enters the ground water…

    Plutonium Hitches a Ride on Subsurface Particles
    Oct 2011

    https://str.llnl.gov/OctNov11/kersting.html

    Here is how it enters our bodies.

    Mystery of How Plutonium Enters cells Solved.
    June 27 2011

    http://esraa-chemist.blogspot.com/2011/06/mystery-of-how-plutonium-enters-cells.html


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  • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

    Minor~plutonium mentioned~here..shut down all these Nuclear Power Cancer Producing rattle traps down… now!
    http://uk.news.yahoo.com/air-pollution-leading-cause-cancer-095038159.html#TFdaVFL


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  • DeSwiss

    Criminal is the mildest way to express what this is. :-|


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  • Wyakin Wyakin

    Hi Mark-thank you. You are correct. A little off topic but I have something to add to your comment.

    There is truth to diet and its connection with the immune system and defenses against radiation. I’d offer this addition. While you correctly offer great vegetable selections, they need to be radiation free, organic, and non-GMO certified.

    If you (readers, not Mark) are rolling your eyes in disdain for the last 2 criteria, keep an open mind, use your innate skepticism (you wouldn't be here if you did not have this characteristic) while conducting further research on both these topics.

    Also remember that body chemistry of each person is different, that’s why any pharmaceutical drug you take contains innate risks based on statistical probability and your genetic makeup in its consumption. Know the risks of insecticides, herbicides and GMOs as well.

    I would offer one underrated and misaligned cancer fighting food-medicinal mushrooms grown in an aseptic grow room using radiation free growth media.(the customary response is "yuck" or "hmm"; also note this has nothing to do with psychotropic drugs)

    Most people do not know that a large percentage of commercial medicinal mushrooms are cultured and grown in commercial grow rooms rather than gathered from forests. It is important to ask the vendors the source and growth media content. (cont)


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  • Wyakin Wyakin

    Why mushrooms? They have proven complex chemical compounds that fight cancer. In Japan, extracts from mushrooms are regularly prescribed by doctors to fight cancer due to their activation of killer and helper T cells.

    Look up Agaricus blazei, Ganoderma lucidium, Lentinula edolus, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus ostretus, to name just a few.

    In 1978, the Japanese researcher Chihara was one of the first to publish on the anticancer properties of Shitake: lentinan, a polysaccharide(β-1,3 glucan with β -1,6 and β -1,3 glucopyranoside branching).

    There are other known quantifiable health benefits of medicinal mushrooms, but you will need to research these on your own if this topic inspires you. And, you can grow these yourself if you are so inclined.

    Peace.


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  • Wyakin Wyakin

    Hi Razzz-yes, it is the question all should ask and contemplate when they buy or attempt to grow their own.

    Mushrooms may be viewed as being at the bottom nutrient chain in the exposed environment, but they can be grown in radiation free environments on grain, bran, straw/leafy/cellulose based materials, some of which you might otherwise be eating in another dish. Care should be taken to source ingredients from areas relatively free from known radioactive fallout.

    I don't know if you would get more radiation from eating a grain of barley from a contaminated area or from eating a mushroom grown on that grain or on the stalk the grain was produced on. I suspect the levels in both the grain and the mushroom would be similar in content, and the answer probably depends on the specifics or the nature of the contamination, but do not have research to support this.

    I personally grow several hundred pounds lbs per year of various varieties for personal consumption and gifting, and I am 99% confident they are free from above background levels of radioactive fallout due to the growing and sourcing conditions. I also periodically test my produce through incineration and a Geiger counter. The results are typically less than background.

    I'm not sure if your question was rhetorical or specific to my experience, but I hope this was useful.

    Peace


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  • safelyiniowa safelyiniowa

    To really identify plutonium you need a probe suitable for low energy gamma rays, aka X-rays. If you can find one a PDR-56F test set is the best. It has a scintillation probe with discriminator circuit. That way it will detect the plutonium and only the plutonium. It is calibrated to give accurate measurement of surface contamination. The set also includes alpha probes. Nice thing is you can get the scintillation probes separate and adjust the discriminator circuit to accept all gamma radiation. However the probe has a low energy scintillation material so does not work well with higher energy gamma. It is easy to change to plastic scintillation material suited for higher energy.


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  • safelyiniowa safelyiniowa

    There are very active radiation groups on yahoo for more information, designs, equipment, etc. Multi Channel Analyzers with scintillation probes are the standard for identifying what isotopes are present. If properly calibrated can also be used to measure level of contamination for each isotope. These used to be expensive and hard to use. Not any longer. There are kits available to assemble your own or have someone assemble for you. Used probes are widely available. In addition scintillation probes are much more sensitive than Geiger tubes used in Geiger Counters. Check out these groups at Yahoo: GammaSpectrometry, GeigerCounterEnthusiasts.


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  • safelyiniowa safelyiniowa

    There are 2 ways to detect alpha radiation. One is a thin walled Geiger probe. Such as very thin mica window or a pancake with thin film. It is not hard to buy or build such probes. Do be aware that shipping them by air requires a pressure proof container, the change in air pressure will cause them to rupture.

    The best way to detect alpha radiation is with special alpha probes. These use a thin mylar film with zinc sulfide inside. The light emitted by zinc sulfide is detected using a photo multiplier tube. PMT's require higher voltage than Geiger tubes. The voltage pulse they put out is negative going, not positive typical of Geiger tubes. You can not just replace a Geiger probe with an alpha scintillation probe. Some commercial rate units can be adjusted to work with both however. These probes are delicate as mylar film must be VERY thin.

    When reporting results remember to use sheet of paper and metal shield to separate alpha, beta, and gamma counts. Do note that you have done so in the report. Otherwise the results you report are of little use to others. Also include distance from source. Alpha radiation can travel only a few centimeters through air, distance is very important.


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  • Wyakin Wyakin

    Safelyiniowa-
    I have always had a soft spot in my heart for Dubuque, Des Moines, and Buena Vista. Thank you for your guidance and peace and safety be with you.


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