Japan nuke expert: I presume melted fuel reacted violently with cement at Reactor No. 3, releasing large amounts of radioactive materials outside — TEPCO responds

Published: August 9th, 2011 at 7:44 am ET


Study says nuclear fuel at Fukushima reactor possibly melted twice, Kyodo, August 9, 2011:

[…] “I presume that the fuel fell to the bottom of the containment vessel made of concrete and reacted violently with its cement, releasing large amounts of radioactive materials into the outside from the pressure vessel,” said [Fumiya Tanabe, an expert in nuclear safety].

TEPCO, meanwhile, casts doubt on Tanabe’s assertion, saying most of the fuel probably remains inside the reactor’s pressure vessel as temperature fluctuations were observed depending on the amount of water injected into it.

Published: August 9th, 2011 at 7:44 am ET


Related Posts

  1. Japan Nuclear Expert: Melted fuel may have gone through cement floor and into ground under Fukushima reactors — I don’t believe Tepco’s claim for one second — Where in the world is it? (VIDEO) August 23, 2012
  2. Melted fuel in Reactor No. 3 appears to have burned through pressure vessel — Loaded with rods containing plutonium May 18, 2011
  3. New TEPCO analysis shows 94% of nuclear fuel melted in Reactor No. 3 May 26, 2011
  4. Gov’t: Fuel melted “much deeper” into concrete at Fukushima reactor than revealed — Triple the depth of original estimate — Tepco: “Impossible for us to evaluate potential impact” August 8, 2014
  5. NHK: “This is a very severe accident” — Nuclear fuel at Reactor No. 1 may have melted through 65 cm of concrete… Only 37 cm at thinnest point (PHOTOS) November 30, 2011

76 comments to Japan nuke expert: I presume melted fuel reacted violently with cement at Reactor No. 3, releasing large amounts of radioactive materials outside — TEPCO responds

  • radegan

    But don’t worry about plutonium, it’s totally safe. So safe in fact they’re making a sugar substitute from it so folks don’t have to use that dangerous stevia stuff.

    “New, delicious PlutoSweet – not only sweetens your tea, but keeps it hot too!”

  • Misitu

    Of course it reacted violently! Grrr! The plausibility ofTepco’s denial is unfortunately tainted by its record to date.

    I find it difficult to understand how the inertia of the official response has been maintained for so long.

    • farawayfan farawayfan

      Probably a bad idea to use past tense with this disaster :-/

      And sadly, it’s not inertia, it’s an active coverup.

      • NoPrevarication NoPrevarication


        In TEPCO’s opposite bizarro world, comments mean the exact opposite of what they say.

  • Bobby1

    The interaction of the fuel (corium) and concrete is what is significant here.

    From “The radiochemistry of nuclear power plants with light water reactors” By Karl-Heinz Neeb:

    “Upon contact, the molten core material (the so-called “corium”) starts to react with the material of the basemat concrete… when the reaction zone is flooded with sump water… the highest temperatures might be reached… the molten-core – concrete interaction is the principal source of the release of the low-volatility fission products to the containment. The volatilization of these elements, such as barium, strontium, lanthanum, and cerium, is strongly supported by the gas bubbles which penetrate through the molten zone.”

    The concrete interaction also enables the particles to move much farther in the atmosphere.

    The gist of what Tanabe is saying, is that we have a physical process that enabled large quantities of strontium-90 to be released, along with a mechanism to transport it long distances.

    • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

      The Radiochemistry of Nuclear Power Plants With Light Water Reactors
      “In this text, radioactivity and the chemical reactions of radionuclons within the different areas of a nuclear power plant are discussed. The text concentrates on commercially-operated light water reactors which currently represent the greatest faction of the world’s nuclear power capacity. In 1994, the total electricity production of such plants corresponded to approximately 17 per cent of the global production. Part A of the text is devoted to a short description of the design of different types of plants in current operation, focusing mainly on those aspects of the plants that are relevant for radionuclide chemistry and behaviour. In Part B, radiochemistry in the primary systems of the plant during normal operation state is discussed. Part C addresses accident conditions, which are different in essential ways as regards to radionuclide chemistry, from normal operating conditions.”

  • There is this reference:
    Potential Accident Consequences at
    It looks as if it is a possible scenario of the happenings at Fukushima:
    The potential harmful consequences of a reactor plant eruption are truly catastrophic in magnitude. From a near full release of fission products and plutonium from just one reactor, about 200,000 square kilometers of land could have to be abandoned, due to high Gamma-radiation levels from the ground fallout, according to my analysis. (The size of West Germany is about 250,000 square kilometers, and Spain, 490,000 sq. kilometers. A like size area could have to be abandoned due alone to man-made plutonium fallout dust (Alpha-radiation) – a lung cancer hazard – following a PWR or BWR eruption, and up to one million square kilometers in the case of a nuclear explosion accident in a plutonium-fuelled fast breeder reactor, which contains much more plutonium. Several hundred thousand square kilometers could be ruined agriculturally for food growing due to long-lasting Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 fallout. There are many other forms of radiation exposure, such as radiation damage to the thyroid gland (cancer) from radioactive Iodine, and exposure of the skin to Beta-radiation, and inhalation of radioactive fission products besides plutonium dust. The combined effects are incalculable in terms of injury and impaired health to humans (and animals). The possibility of fifty million or more cancer deaths cannot be excluded.

    In addition, a reactor eruption or containment explosion can directly destroy one or more adjacent reactors in a multi-reactor nuclear power station, or otherwise trigger internal eruptions or explosions in the other reactors on the nuclear power site. In Great Britain nuclear sites typically have up to four rectors, in France, four to six reactors side by side (e.g. Gravelines). Therefore, there are the potentials for multiple reactor eruptions, to horribly multiply the potential catastrophic consequences as much as six fold – all triggered by a single reactor eruption. The radiation consequences could be ruinous for most of Europe, and the social disruptions and breakdown in social order and barbarism are all too horrible to contemplate.

    There is also the possibilities for releases of still more radioactivity from stored spent fuel at a reactor plant. I do not have any information on the quantity of spent fuel stored in the storage basins in European reactors; but in America, where spent fuel rods are simply accumulating at the nuclear power plants (compact storage), due to the unsolved nuclear waste disposal problem, it is possible and likely that a catastrophic reactor explosion would cause the eruption of the spent fuel storage (zirconium fire), releasing up to twenty times more Strontium-90, Cesium-137 and Plutonium into the Earth’s atmosphere as smoke than what one reactor eruption could alone release. A set of reactor eruptions and their spent fuel storages at the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama (three BWRs), for instance, could make most of the Eastern United States including Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York, Boston – that whole eastern region of the United States – uninhabitable for hundreds of years, if not permanently due to the Plutonium contamination.

    And finally, there is the ultimate possibility that a multiple of reactor eruptions at a nuclear power station say in France or Great Britain could cause indirectly reactor accidents at other nuclear stations in Europe and Britain, due to the general social and economic disruptions caused by the first accident, including failures of electricity supplies needed for maintaining core cooling, to continuously remove the perpetual fission product heat, and plant crew members quitting the plants, because of high radiation levels from fallout and the social chaos and crises of the families of the crew members. So it is conceivable that a reactor accident could trigger a chain reaction of reactor eruptions across Europe with more and more radiation contamination to cause more social disruption and consequently more nuclear accidents/eruptions, and so on in a radioactive cataclysm. What then about the possibility of the outbreak of war and the use of nuclear weapons by military commanders and government leaders going mad. We need to fully evaluate the nuclear accident hazards.

  • farawayfan farawayfan

    Anybody want to go in on renting some of those video billboards and broadcast the live night-time feed (which happens during and after rush in the am) of Daichi #3 steaming away? Maybe that’ll get some sheeple thinking…..

  • Toadmac

    Thought I would post and share my rad results here as people have asked me to.
    All tests were done with fresh bags and paper towels. My background readings
    were done 1m off the ground in a sheltered spot. I will re test all of them
    tomrrow as they are labeled and put aside.all tests were at least 10 mins or
    longer.They are all in Melbourne,victoria,Australia using a pripyat 20.03 counter.

    First tests were done at between 8am and 1:30pm today 09/08/2011 dd/mm/yyyy.
    With some light rain around coming from the south west.

    Background = 0.18-o.27 uSv/hr, 13875 dpm (Disintegrations per minute)= 231.25 bq?

    First wipe of car window = .51 uSv/hr, 46990 dpm = 783 bq (wiped last night)

    Second wipe car window = .43 uSv/hr, 19980 dpm = 333 bq (much cleaner)

    Top layer of garden bark = .23 uSv/hr, 19610 dpm = 327 bq

    3″ deep garden bark = .33 uSv/hr, 17020 dpm = 284 bq

    Loose stone and mud near garden drain = .32uSv/hr, 19240 dpm = 321 bq

    Fresh garden potatos (my garden) = 1.03 uSv/hr (WTF?), 24975 dpm = 416 bq

    Wipe rain off outdoor setting (clean 4 days ago) = .57 uSv/hr no dpm count ops

    Wipe rain off rubbish bin = .38 uSv/hr, 19425 dpm = 324 bq

    Banana from shop lol = .3 uSv/hr, 18130 dpm = 302 bq

    Moss from lake across the road = .31 uSv/hr, 18130 dpm = 302 bq

    The next ones were taken tonight after 3hrs of heavy rain.

    Background = .4 uSv/hr no dpm taken

    Rain off my foot path = .48 uSv/hr, 21460 dpm = 358 bq

    Roadside drain = .43 uSv/hr no dpm taken as it started to rain again.

    Hope my math is right as i have to convert dpm from curies?
    I will test all again tomorrow to check for error.

    P.S. My test bed was 1 microcurie of Americium 241 = 1.17 uSv/hr, to many dpm = need a better counter!

    Thanks people. Hope it makes sense?

    • milk and cheese milk and cheese

      So the radiation is there, and Australia and the southern hemisphere are not safe for ‘bugging out’. But you do throw some great parties down there. If I have to make my final exit, I’d like to do it partying in Sydney.

      • alasanon

        oh no! My fantasy location!…
        I fear that all of the Asia/Pacific region must be getting elevated doses!…
        I always liked Singapore, too…

        How many BILLIONS of people does it have to affect before they kick some containment into gear in Japan?!!!

    • matina matina

      high Toadmac a couple of questions:
      how do you convert dpm to Bq and would that not have to mean something like Bq/m or Bq/kg or Bq/l? how do you do that?
      and other questions how big where your samples? Because the results are relevant to the size of the measured sample!!!! As an example if you measured 30g of potatoes and had 416 Bq/30gr that would be magnitudes more contaminated then 416Bq/kg !!!!!
      Keep in mind that the Japanese limit for food is ourtragously high at 500Bq/kg ….and what are you measuring with, is that a gamma meter? If yes, then one must keep in mind that your amount in Bq is only for gamma emitters like C-137 and not for beta and alpha emitters putting things again into another perspective
      It would also be good to know the background radiation at ground level…….by the way, my parents harvested not long ago the most beautifull potatoes ….can you imagine how painfull it was not to eat the scrumptious potatoe salad or baked dinner? Of course it was more painfull them laughing at me and eating away like nothing else matters……..

      • Toadmac

        divide by 60- bq just means desegregation’s per second. It is per Kg, sorry if it was confusing. I will get better as I learn. Its no wonder you need a degree in this field as it has so many ups and downs, ins and outs and upside downs. It seems the more I read and learn the more confusing it becomes.

        • Toadmac

          Don’t know if the size of sample matters as its automatic and works out per/kg the amount of curies? My test source has .29 micrograms of americium 241 = 37000 bq = 3300000×1000=3300000000×37000= 122100000000000 bq/kg? (I hope anyway)divide this number by 37000000000=3300 Ci/kg. This is only rough as the actual curie per kilogram is 3490 Ci/kg. I think the math is right but rough? it is enough to get an idea anyway. My counter says it is only 3280 Ci/kg? Anyway I will get better as time goes by.

          P.S. If you ever find a kg of americium don’t stand to close as this could be harmful to your health. Mind you the Japanese could drink it and be fine (yeah right!).

          • matina matina

            Hi Toadmac the size of the sample you are measuring matters. It matters if you are making measurements on one potatoe or on 1kg of potatoes. The amount of Bq in a small sample will be less then in a big sample, therefor you should always be making measurments on a big sample to get a better reading. As an example the amount of Cesium 137 in 3 potatoes maybe only 160Bq because we have a small sample, but the activity in one Kg could be 2000Bq/kg. Make also sure you have your probe in plastic at all times when you take measurments so you wont contaminate it. Have you measured your soil yet? I wonder how much fallout is still active there after the 50s+60s weapon tests…….keep it up ! nice to have an Aussie jump on board

    • Koz

      Toadmac, I’ve been waiting months for that information. Thank you, very much. Very bad but real news. My inspector alert finally shipped today after a 3 month wait, and I am afraid of what I will find here in Oregon, US. Thanks again and look forward to more readings.

  • pg

    Same news, over and over again. Rahm Emanuel..”never let a disaster go to waste”.

    Not much we here don’t know, except where the melted fuel lies…which I believe that seeing that part of Japan sank up to 8′, it hit the water table and is chilling there.

    • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

      There is new news on the site and in the blogs every day. I learn a lot every day.

      • Dr. Anne Lee Tomlinson Maziar anne

        I have heard that the quotation–”never let a disaster go to waste”–refers to the NWO using chaos and disasters to establish a dictatorship.

  • StillJill StillJill

    Yes Anne,…that is how I have heard “Never let a good crisis go to waste”, being used also.

    Thanks Toadmac!!!! That was very thorough and telling. Did I understand you that the potato was 1.03,..higher than the 3″ deep soil?
    I was told that the ‘root crops’ were safer. I thought that mean ‘cleaner’? Confused. Good help you’ve offered us, (me).

    Looking forward to more vigilante hero deeds! 🙂

    • Bobby1

      There are two ways radiation can enter crops:

      1. Particles falling from the air. Green leafy plants and vegetables are most affected by this, root crops are not.

      2. Update of radiation from soil. Root crops like potatoes and carrots are most affected.

      We’re transitioning from #1 to #2 in the US.

      • Bobby1

        I meant “uptake” not “update”.

        • alasanon

          Not looking good. It doesn’t take *that* long for the radioactive rainfall deposition to start becoming ingrained in the DNA of the plants & animals!…ugh! Yet, even our “organic” farmers remain blissfully unaware and unresponsive!!

          hmmm…maybe this *could* wipe out billions? This is flipping insane.

          It’s also creepy to read the reports from Chernobyl regions, where the goal was to eat “less” contaminated food by boiling it, avoiding certain textures and preparations, etc. But, YOU HAVE TO EAT!

          It looks like eating “less” contaminated, albeit seriously gross, unhealthy and radioactive, food may become our best hope.

          • alasanon

            Japan needs to read up on techniques on how to reduce radiation in food. They’ve used them for years in Chernobyl regions. It’s really complicated, but it can make a life or death difference.

    • lam335 lam335

      See this article posted on Berkeley’s dept. of Nuclear engineering page:


      Potatoes may be more dangerous than other vegetables. (May 29th)
      Potatoes may be more dangerous than other vegetables.

      Potatoes may be more liable to be contaminated by radioactive materials released by the stricken Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant than other types of fruits and vegetables, according to a study by Japan’s agriculture ministry.

      Researchers looked at the absorption rates of 17 types of vegetables and four fruits and found that sweet potatoes and potatoes were significantly more likely to take in radioactive materials than other fruits and leafy vegetables.

      The maximum absorption rate of a sweet potato was 17 times higher than that for a lettuce, for instance.

      “If potatoes are grown in farmlands where high concentration levels of cesium have been detected in the soil, they could contain more (radioactive material) at the time of harvesting than safety standards,” a ministry official said.

      The research, released by the government on May 27, was based on data drawn from foreign countries with a similar climate to Japan.

      The absorption rate was calculated as the proportion of the cesium present in the soil that finds its way into a fruit or vegetable’s edible portions at harvest.

      For example, if sweet potatoes with a maximum absorption rate of 0.36 were grown in soil with 5,000 becquerels of cesium per kilogram, the agriculture ministry researchers would project about 1,800 becquerels of radioactive material per kilogram in the vegetable itself if the maximum rate was applied.

      The study gave three different absorption figures for each foodstuff: a maximum ratio, a minimum ratio, and an average ratio.

      According to the data, the average absorption rate of sweet potatoes was 0.033. The maximum and minimum rates were 0.36 and 0.0020, respectively. The corresponding figures for Irish potatoes were 0.011 (average), 0.13 (maximum) and 0.00047 (minimum).

      Other fruits and vegetables had considerably lower absorption ratios. The average rate for a lettuce was 0.0067, with a maximum rate of 0.021 and a minimum of 0.0015.

      Apples showed a 0.0010 average absorption rate and a 0.0030 maximum.

      Under the Food Sanitation Law, the maximum permissible level of cesium in a kilogram of vegetables is 500 becquerels.

      In April, the agriculture ministry and the Fukushima prefectural government jointly conducted a soil survey in farmland beyond a 30-kilometer radius of the Fukushima plant.

      They found about 5,000 becquerels of cesium per kilogram of soil in Iitate village, Kawamata town, Otama village, Nihonmatsu city and Motomiya city. Residents of Iitate village and part of Kawamata town have already been told to leave their homes.

      The ministry decided to look at contamination levels to about 15 centimeters below the surface because cesium leaked from the plant is likely to be mixed into the soil when farmers prepare the land before planting.

      It gathered overseas data on soil contaminated by cesium-137, which has a half-life of about 30 years, to a depth of 10 to 20 cm.

      “The amount of data is limited, so the absorption rates are just for reference. We want each local government or farmer to decide which agricultural products to plant,” a ministry official said.

      The ministry has already banned rice planting in some areas, but has no plans for similar embargoes on the planting of vegetables and fruits.

      Instead, it plans to stop shipments if agricultural products are found to exceed safety standards for radioactive materials when they are harvested.

      An official of JA Michinoku Adachi, an agricultural cooperative in Nihonmatsu, said: “The absorption rates released by the agricultural ministry are just a guide. But in areas where high concentrations of radioactive materials are detected, we could change to products which have low absorption rates.”

      (This article was written by Satoshi Otani and Keishi Nishimura.)

      • Pallas89juno Pallas89juno@yahoo.com

        Dear Iam: Thank you very much for the excellent information that can be applied immediately.

      • lam335 lam335

        By the way, I believe a lot of U.S. potatoes come from Idaho (though I’m not certain about this), and remember that, according to the EPA’s numbers, Boise, Idaho, had some of the heaviest fallout in precipitation, etc.


        • Bobby1

          Idaho and Washington have the highest potato production in the US. Both states have been hit hard.


          The fall potato harvest occurs at the end of September. Expect the fast food french fries to go bad starting in October.

          • Lil

            I wish the article was more clear on which radionuclides were being tested for, however, it seems to imply only cesium. I also believe that Japan wasn’t testing crops for strontium or plutonium. If this is the case then farmers should start growing potatoes in the Virginia area. I believe this area was the least hit by cesium.

      • Lil

        Where are sweet potatoes grown?

        • I did a QS and found that they are grown about everywhere, could not find a state over others for mass farming of ! Also grown in many countries as China for much to feed pigs !

      • Lil

        I started some research this spring but never had time to finish and put it together, but I will put what I have. Maybe it will help. Radioactive storage of Cesium (Caesium) 137, Strontium, and Plutonium isotopes in food plants and How to Survive the Radioactivity in our soils.

        Note* I had originally planned to do a more complete approach to this topic, however, since this information is needed so desperately now, I have decided to release it with future updates. My expertise is in botany and ecology so those of you who have expertise in radiation science, math, etc., please feel free to email me with corrections.

        Cesium-137 is now widely recognized to be found in soil throughout the United States (EPA), while Plutonium, as far as I know, has only been found on the West Coast and a few other isolated areas. Strontium-90, a by-product of our Nuclear testing days was already in our soil throughout the US, being found in heaviest quantities downwind from Nuclear Test sites, particularly Utah and Nevada. Since Fukushima, other Strontium isotopes are being found on the West Coast and Hawaii.

        Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 are particularly dangerous due to their long half life of approximately 30 years and due to food plants readily taking them up, mistaking them for potassium and calcium respectively.(http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fisfrag.html) CS137 is then taken up throughout our bodies. SR90 is distributed in our bones causing a muriad of problems including bone cancer and brittle, easily broken bones. Plutonium, while one of the most dangerous elements known, is not widely dispersed in the United States yet, however, if we get another powerful nuclear blast from Fukushima along with the right winds, it could become a serious problem here.

        In addition to Fukushima, we have problems here at home. An anonymous contributor to the Berkeley Radiological Air and Water Monitoring Forums provided charts that he made from data derived from searching the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission databases which show scary amounts of Cesium-137 and other dangerous radioactive isotopes being released from United States Nuclear Reactors on a regular basis (http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/node/3589). In addition, statistics show a much higher rate of cancer for those living within ___ miles of these reactors, which verifies that these reactors are being vented on a regular basis.

        Things become truly scary when we look at the deposition rates which have already accumulated and extrapolate to find the approximate figures that will have been deposited on our soil by the end of this year. (http://globalcooperative.wordpress.com/2011/05/05/lies-from-every-official-mouthpiece/) You can also see how the deposition rates are increasing if you look at the Eurad CS137 Deposition Model, (http://www.eurad.uni-koeln.de/index_e.html)
        which show that if things continue at the present rate we will be in the high (orange levels) of CS137 by July.

        Radioactive cesium and strontium are readily taken up by plants through their roots and leaves. The amount of uptake, along with where the radioactive isotopes are deposited in the plant depend on several factors including the plant family, genera, species and variety as well as the binding strength of different soils on deposited radioactive isotopes. This binding strength is dependent on other factors such as the soil structure, soil pH, amount of organic matter in the soil, and potassium level in the soil. ()

        In addition, high concentrations of ammonium in the soil combined with low levels of available potassium and a soil composed of larger particles can increase the uptake of CS137 by the plant roots. Clay, which is a soil type composed of the smallest particles, retards the absoption through the plant roots by way of specific sites in its structure which trap radioactive Cesium and other radionuclides. The more clay in a soil, the less uptake. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11814166)

        Most of the Cesium in the soil is retained in the surface levels.(Korobova et al. 1998; Takenaka et al. 1998)
        In general areas with high rain fall may have higher levels of radionuclides than arid areas.

        the majority of cesium being retained in the upper 20 cm of
        the soil surface (Korobova et al. 1998; Takenaka et al. 1998)
        The uptake of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from soils into plants vby way of plant roots depends on the plant family, genera, species and variety and the binding strength of different soils on deposited radioactive caesium. This binding strength is greatly dependent on soil pH and content of clay, potassium (K) and organic matter in soils. – Application of potassium fertilizers and lime can potentially reduce the level of uptake of radioactive material by plants.
        – Growing alternative crops that accumulate less radioactive materials than those normally grown in the region. For example, cereals in place of leafy vegetables.

        Clay soils and potassium (K) reduce update of Cesium 137.
        The most effective and practical method for reducing the uptake of cesium-137 into food crops is to treat areas with potassium fertilizer (KCl), which can reduce CS 137 to 5% to 10% of the pretreatment level.. One alternative is to excavate the top 30 to 40 cm of soil.

        High potassium (K) in soils reduces Cesium 137. Although radiocaesium is most likely taken up by the K transport systems within the plant, the Cs:K ratio is not uniform within the plant. Difference in internal Cs concentration (when expressed on a dry mass basis) may vary by a factor of 20 between different plant species grown under similar conditions.

        Plutonium is mostly stored in the roots of plants

        Cesium is stored least in roots and most in leaves. Fruit is intermediate, but higher than roots with the exception of some berries, ei rasberries which do not store cesium.

        After a contamination event, two main factors account for the high transfer: the low solid-liquid distribution coefficient, which is due to the low clay content and high NH4+ concentration in the soil solution, and the low K+ availability, which enhances root uptake. Studies carried out after the Chernobyl accident have shown that high 137CS soil-to-plant transfer persists in organic soils over years. In most of these soils, the specific sites in clays control radiocaesium adsorption http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11814166

        increase in NH(4)(+) concentrations could lead to an increase in the radiocaesium root uptake. root uptake would depend on changes in RIP, K+ and NH(4)(+) values in the soil solution. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12691722

        Soil-plant transfer factors of Tc,technetium for leaf vegetables such as spinach and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L.) were considerably higher than those for edible parts of non-leaf vegetables (e.g. carrot, onion, sweet potato, tomato). The following average values (on a wet weight basis) for the transfer factors in edible parts of vegetables were obtained. Cabbage, 0.3; Chinese cabbage, 0.1; spinach, 2.4; komatsuna, 1.1; carrot, 0.3; onion, 0.05; sweet potato, 0.03 and tomato, 0.03.

        Transfer factor for CS 137 and St90 are in the
        following order: lettuce, cabbage>carrot, potato>cereals, onion; for fruits, the order was: black current>Strawberry>apple
        rye-barley-wheat, then oats
        CS – max TF – Leafy 7.7; Fruit/vegetable 3.5; Potato 5.7; Root vegetable 1.3 — Leguminous and leafy vegetables have the highest TF values

        Sr – min TF – Leafy 7.3E-02; F/V 6.0E-03; Potato 4.8E-03; Root veg 2.2E-02
        Leafy vegetables Bq/Kg Sr-3.0E+0 IAEA94 Fr82

        Fruit Sr-2.0E-1

        Root Vegetables Sr-5.0E-1

        Grain Sr-2.1E-1

        Fruit trees
        CS134 tends to accumulate in edible part of fruit, while strontium 85 accumulates in peel in apples.
        In sweet cherries, peaches and apples, most CS 137 is gone after 4 years. One mechanism of CS removal is annual loss of leaves and fruit. 1st year total CS rejection was 238 Bq and 2nd year was 90 Bq. One year after Nuclear accident, radiocesium content of perennial crops (trees) is considerably higher than annual fruits and grains. This along with the fact that 95% of the Cesium was still in undisturbed soil, leads one to conclude that root uptake is NOT the primary mechanism of radiocontamination in perennial crops. Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that during initial radioactive contamination, Cesium was stored in the tree to be released in parts to fruits and leaves each succeeding year. This release to new tree products is less than 5%. The biological half life would be app .7 years (or seven/tenths of a year). So in about 7 years most of the CS 137 would be gone. In light contamination I would probably feel relatively safe in eating the fruit in 3 or 4 years.

        Strawberries The values of the environmental half-time, t w, after deposition at predormancy are 114 d for 134Cs and 109 d for 85Sr. Cesium-134 tends to be allocated to fruits, while 85Sr remains in leaves and crowns. Translocation of radionuclides to roots results in soil contamination.

        Arid soils
        Transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil to trees in arid regions
        The transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg−1 dry plant material per Bq kg−1 dry soil) of both radionuclides varied among tree parts and were highest in olive and apricot fruits. However, the values for 90Sr were much higher than those for 137Cs in all plant parts. The geometric mean of the transfer factors in olives, apricots and grapes were 0.007, 0.095 and 0.0023 for 137Cs and 0.093, 0.13 and 0.08 for 90Sr, respectively, and were negligible in olive oil for both radionuclides .Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
        Volume 90, Issue 1, 2006, Pages 78-88

        Hyperaccumulators http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperaccumulators_table_%E2%80%93_3
        Brassicaeae Cabbage family Hyperaccumulators: Cd, Cs, Ni, Sr, Zn Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), Zn(H) Citric acid chelating agent increases uptake 1000 times,[23][8]
        Amaranthus retroflexus ( cv. Belozernii, aureus, Pt-95) Redroot Amaranth Hyperaccumulator: Cd, Cs, Ni, Sr, Zn.[4] Phytoextraction. Can accumulate radionuclides.[6] Maximum concentration is reached after 35 days of growth.[19]
        Coconut palm xxx Tree able to accumulate radionuclides
        Corn xxx High absorption rate. Accumulates radionuclides.[16] Contains 2 to 3 times more Cs137 in his roots than in the biomass above ground.[19]
        Trifolium repens White Clover xxx Grass or Forb species capable of accumulating radionuclides
        Amaranth Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), Zn(H) Citric acid chelating agent,[8] and see note. Cs: maximum concentration is reached after 35 days of growth.[19]
        Tomato, Chard and Cucumber for Cs

        strontium concentrations
        Concentrations of Sr in non-Eudicots were significantly less than in Eudicots and there were significant effects on Sr concentrations in the dataset down the phylogenetic hierarchy to the family level. Of the orders in the dataset the Cucurbitales, Lamiales, Saxifragales and Ranunculales had particularly high Sr concentrations and the Liliales, Poales, Myrtales and Fabales particularly low Sr concentrations. Mean relative Sr concentrations in 60 plant species correlated with those reported elsewhere for Ca in the same species, and the frequency distribution and some phylogenetic effects on Sr concentration in plants were similar to those reported for Ca. (Calcium) A phylogenetic effect on strontium concentrations in angiosperms Environmental and Experimental Botany
        Volume 57, Issue 3, October 2006, Pages 258-269
        Neil Willey, a, and Kathy Fawcetta

        Sr-Strontium xxx Legume family xxx xxx Species most capable of accumulating radionuclides

        Leafy vegetables
        – The deposition of radioactive materials on crops is higher for grass or leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach, cabbage etc.) than sparsely-leaved crops (e.g. onion or tomatoes), because of their broader leaf surface.

        Root crops
        – Root crops (e.g. carrots, potatoes, etc.) have little risk of immediate contamination by the fallout itself.
        Onions – high uptake and concentration of CS137

        Radiocesium Releases from Nuclear Power Plants for 1993 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp157-c6.pdf
        San Onofre San Clemente, CA 0.49 0.57 2.5×10

        The average concentrations of total
        Cs and
        Cs in milk powder, infant milk powder, infant cereal,
        meat, lentil, wheat, and macaroni samples from Saudi Arabia were 514, 351, 486, 162, 270, 676, and
        351 pCi/kg, respectively (Abdul-Majid et al. 1992). For the month of June 1986, the average
        concentrations of total
        Cs and
        Cs in milk, green vegetables, fruit, lamb, and beef were reported as
        3,243, 2,703, 2,703, 8,108, and 1,622 pCi/kg in high deposition areas of the United Kingdom (Cumbria,
        north Wales, Scotland, northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man) (Mondon and Walters 1990).

    • Toadmac

      I was surprised at the potato myself. The bark reading was taken about 20m away on the other side of the garden. I have learnt a lot about radiation over the last few days. Very complex and confusing mathematical conversions and equations. Maybe I’m just getting old but I will get there slowly.

      • lam335 lam335

        Just a thought, but could the potato reading also be higher because you are picking up the combined effect of possible FUK fallout and naturally occurring potassium-40?

        • Toadmac

          I was wondering about that too? I will recheck today and do a bit of research. Don’t worry I haven’t pulled them out yet ;p OH MY BEAUTIFUL BABIES!! they are to young to die!!

          • alasanon

            You’re having trouble with radioactive readings for potatoes in Australia?? 🙁

            That’s not a good sign!

            (or do I have you mixed up w/another poster?)

          • Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and California.

          • Toadmac

            Don’t really know yet? Only just started my quest! I hope not!!! The readings of background rads goes up about 1 min before it starts to rain? Coincidence? Luck? or just life from here on in?

          • alasanon

            Toadmac, Do keep us posted! A lot of are COUNTING on your nation’s exported agricultural products! 🙂

            When you look at the map, Australia is a little bit too close for comfort to the source point…They must keep measuring & not just the Northern Territory.

            Crossing my fingers for you all!…

    • Lil

      Plutonium is mostly stored in the roots of plants

      Cesium is stored least in roots and most in leaves. Fruit is intermediate, but higher than roots with the exception of some berries, ei rasberries which do not store cesium.

      Strontium storage seems to vary more by species. I will try to find a map that I had showing levels of Strontium in the US from Nuclear testing prior to Fukushima. It was heaviest of course east of the testing ground in Nevada and also in Washington state east of their testing area with California having the least. Of course that may have changed. What I feel is most essential to our survival is soil testing so we know what radioisotopes are where and edible plant species testing so we know what is still safe to eat here.

  • StillJill StillJill


  • While posting here, be very careful about posting intense feelings related to the disaster. This board is monitored closely and actively trolled by members of various organizations to try and elicit various responses.

    The issue is this: The corporate mafia and their client governments (all of them) are going with “Lie and Die”. They sentence us to death in their silence, knowing that there’s nothing we can do about it. They’re expecting a populist revolt and they need to identify the players in the game. They know we’re gong to have to fight them for our lives and they have no intention of losing control. Simply put, they are saying to us “We own your life, we will kill you if we choose, and there is nothing you can do about it.”

    Except fight them. It’s a Catch-22. Don’t fight them, there’s no point. What are they going to do, crawl underground or leave the planet? Either way we’re all in the same boat now.

    If you’re not religious, you should rectify that. You’ll need it.

    • Pallas89juno Pallas89juno@yahoo.com

      Dear Cobol: I agree with the main substance of your post. What the power elite hopes is that we continue to believe that “there’s nothing we can do about it.” Of course, WE can once enough information creating ideas get out there that the power elite can’t squash with extant or new brainwashing (and there’s always re-brainwashing) techniques. They rely heavily on certain cultural propensities in various countries on group-think and herd mentality, of which both Japan and the U.S. suffer mightily from these mass cultural character defects. Nonetheless, such defects can and will, I believe, be overcome. When we do create enough momentum (the power elites worst nightmare) of leaderless, empowered citizens in their millions or billions (they always in their tiny numbers); no matter what further genocidal tactics are pulled by the power elite, we will then win.

      • Entrapment takes many forms, some of which are so esoteric as to remain invisible unless realized by the individual. Be aware, be safe, and be wary of people who encourage anything that could remotely be construed as “terrorism”. The US has been moving troops around the continent in anticipation of widespread civil unrest. They know we’re coming. Just pray to God and be nice.

    • selfsovereign

      It just like 1984-WELL
      just like the late george orwell

      Tim minchin – 1984. Short, snappy and oh so relevant

    • arclight arclight

      🙁 @ cobalt 2
      you have a good point…i can be shut down on the internet at any time in the uk, as the law now stands if i push for any activism! if i try to organise anything i can be arrested(see previous posts on my phone hack) before the activity! its a tricky one! you have to be careful what you advocate too! and how you advocate it!
      however weve all posited our opinions at different times and that is a good thing i think! healthy democrasy, and i dont think self censorship is the way forward here… i hope! i suppose it is up to the individual to decide… thats called freedom! just wonder where freedom and democracy will be, beginning this october (if i have me info correct!) 🙁

  • selfsovereign



  • shaktasna999

    This is such bullsh*t. Maybe we are going about notifying people in backwards fashion.

    Every time we post to other news places they do ridiculous things.

    Maybe it should go to someone “sensational”.

    Anybody got a favorite truly tasteless musician or actor they care to harass? Or a youtube video or radio show done in War of the Worlds fashion to get people to pay attention?

    It is about time that the MSM knows that these BS media dramas will be handled with force so to speak.

    *Off to meditate*

  • matina matina

    @toadmak @StillJill

    Potatoes love mopping up Strontium, a strong beta emitter
    I would avoid eating potatoes (and other Strontium Junkies) after hot rain
    Other in Garden Strontium-Junkies are:
    Don’t forgett, no point de-contaminating till continuous releases have stopped….
    Take care luvya all
    P.S. please avoid Strontium as it damages DNA

    • arclight arclight

      not carrot and pease please!!
      potato was the last straw! ive run out of straws!!
      🙁 off to by canned carrots!! and canned potatoes, 10-300 year supply should do it! but i have this fear that i will end up with the really contaminated early plume stuff!! and should wait for the rain to clean the soil and eat that!!??
      also new zealand butter?? i thought it was alright til toadmacs readings came up in australia! @toadmac could you take some readings of dairy produce, milk cheese youghourt, lamb and goat meat thin slices, mushrooms and lichen, sunflowers! thanks!

      • arclight arclight

        sorry toadmac i meant to say please! peace

      • alasanon

        Second that request to Toadmac! =)

        Arclight, Try stocking up on dried potato flakes to make mashed potatoes. You can order them, if they don’t have what you need at a health food or grocery store. I’ve found that it all dates pre-Fuku, tastes great and keeps for years…

        I may try to grow some sweet potatoes & tomatoes myself…wonders never cease!

  • StillJill StillJill

    I’m such a freak,…all I’m eating now is grains, nuts, seeds, etc,…all pre-3/11. I’m milling my own ezekiel grains and baking fresh bread. I’m spouting and juicing the spouts with non-GMO soy milk,..etc. It’s boring,…but it’s a couple of things: 1) Clean-pre-3/11
    2)alkalizing and healthy–no isotopes. If it’s just me,….1.5 years,…if I mate-up, half that. Hummmmmmmm. 🙂

    • dog_days


      You are a true gem. Tell you what, I’ll bring my half and then it’s the whole 1.5 yrs. I’ll even help you bake that fresh bread. (something I have a bit of experience with)

      I also recommend to folks to stock up on dehydrated foods – but keep in mind they require a (hopefully non-radioactive) source of water to prepare.

      Oh, and I’m sure you’re “sprouting” “sprouts” and not “spouting” “spouts”. I got a kick out of that one. 🙂

      Take care,

    • BreadAndButter BreadAndButter

      Morning Miss Clarkson 😉
      don’t you eat any veggies, fruit, etc.??
      Baking your own bread is great, but keep in mind the energy you use to do so (but I guess you’re using renewables!)
      I don’t think you’re a freak at all 🙂

      • dog_days

        Hi BreadAndButter,

        I just popped in here to see if Jill had left a reply.

        I can’t really tell but I hope you weren’t thinking I was poking fun at StillJill. I was just trying to be sincere and witty. Doesn’t always work on these here interwebs.

        A couple of points::

        * One of my favorite ways of baking bread is also the most cumbersome. I have a couple of cast iron “dutch ovens” and use them over a brick fire pit out back. Cornbread, bisquits, loaves, you name it.

        * I have one of those food dehydrators that works really well. It’s used to dehydrate fruit slices and veggies such as squish and yuchinni. I have 2 shelves of sealed jars of such in the cellar.

        Problem is I have no device to monitor radiation so I don’t know how much, if any, is being absorbed by the plants in the garden and our small orchard. I have to go by what individuals report to radiationnetwork in my state.

        And the really screwed thing is that it is only a matter of time before all the wheat will have some level of such. Oh well, at least my bread will be easier to find in the dark.

        Now I’m off to read that story about the Tokyo man who registered at 7,000 Bq Cesium. I mean, WOW.

        Take care,

  • StillJill StillJill

    Hi d_d, and Bread,….too funny. My typing is up to par with my thoughts these day,…sorry,..but glad you got a chuckle at least!
    Nose bleeds happening to nearly 1 out of every three peeps I know,…and my b/P was 84/51 today. I feel just like that.
    Perhaps you are right,…more veggies, darn it,…particles and all. I sprout legumes and grains and eat them as my greens.
    Doggie is sick again too,…BOTH ends! Urrrrr

  • NeverAnyDanger

    There’s been a meltdown, a melt-through and a melt-out.

    Now tepco is saying “most of the fuel probably remains inside the reactor’s pressure vessel”. How did it get back into the pressure vessel?? Was there a melt-back-up?

    I believe Arnie Gunderson said he thought all the blobs were laying on the concrete below the pressure vessel.

    And it’s not FUEL anymore.