Official: Chemicals coming up at Louisiana sinkhole “could be leaching from actually below the cavern itself” — May also be from “surrounding caverns in that area” (AUDIO)

Published: February 19th, 2013 at 11:30 am ET


Title: Spud talks w/Joe Harrison about the sinkhole
Source: WWL AM 870
Date: February 14, 2013

At 5:15 in

Host: Now all of a sudden all these different chemical compounds are coming out? […]

Louisiana State Representative Joe Harrison: That’s part of what we’re dealing with right now is the unknown.

We’ve been told it could be leaching from actually below the cavern itself or from surrounding caverns that are in that area.

Again Spud, it’s the unknown and that what these people that have homes there are suffering through this.

See also: [intlink id=”official-all-chemicals-coming-ground-louisiana-sinkhole-compounds-mixing-together-identified” type=”post”]{{empty}}[/intlink]

Full broadcast here

Published: February 19th, 2013 at 11:30 am ET


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57 comments to Official: Chemicals coming up at Louisiana sinkhole “could be leaching from actually below the cavern itself” — May also be from “surrounding caverns in that area” (AUDIO)

  • irhologram

    Cavern(s)? Leaching? Well, that would mean FAILED. Totally failed and soon to collapse and release all that "unknown" content.

    • PavewayIII PavewayIII

      Geeze… give ol' Joe a break, ir. He's a LA State Rep, not a petroleum engineer.

      Of course it means failed and everyone knows it – or at least the side of it – has been in the process of collapsing for months. The crude and gas are leaking (leaching) in from somewhere – take your pick. It's not filling up Oxy #3 cavern because Oxy #3 is mostly filled with mud and shale. It's probably leaking around the outside of the cavern more that it is directly into the cavern. Who cares?

      Oxy #3 is totally trashed. Some hydrocarbon formation somewhere around there is bubbling to the surface.

  • timemachine2020 timemachine2020

    Repost for those that have not seen these latest 2 videos from Miss Rain in Bayou Corne
    Miss Rain just posted a fantastic video for those interested in the Bayou Corne Sinkhole. Water at 2 feet down the well? Even though the water level mentioned in inside a drilled well hole casing, something is wrong there. 71 percent methane in the well that is full of water except for the top two feet. Someone with an explanation of that is eagerly awaited. Sorry Miss rain they had to put those eye sores in your nice lawn. Please let us know what that other wellhead cap was for when you find out. Excellent video skills Miss Rain.

    Miss Rain strikes again with sad video of the heavy equipment bulldozing the small area left between the stinkhole and the homes. Total destruction of what was once paradise. As always Miss Rain, great video. Keep em comin while you can, we really do feel your pain. You should get some earmuffs while that noise pollution is rocking your neighborhood.

  • MaidenHeaven MaidenHeaven

    Elevated radioactive radium levels caused health concerns

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LA DEQ) released the results of testing for NORM showing Radium-226 was detected as being present at a concentration of 63.569 pCi/liter while Radium-228 was detected as being present at a concentration of 18.705 pCi/liter. While State officials are saying naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is below hazardous levels independent testings has confirmed that radium-226 and radium-228 levels at sinkhole are about 15 times higher than the safe limits and state’s soil contamination standards.

    • MaidenHeaven MaidenHeaven

      In August 1995, the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Office of Conservation did not object when Texas Brine considered putting up to 20 cubic feet of NORM in an underground company cavern in the Napoleonville Dome and in another salt dome in Lafourche Parish, according to DEQ and state Office of Conservation records.

      Texas Brine officials said in a statement last week that they did not put NORM into its caverns but that it remains onsite under a standing license that DEQ gave to it.

      “Since the concentration level of NORM was so low, and the amount of accumulated scale was so small, it was determined to leave the scale in place,” Texas Brine officials stated after told that DEQ concluded NORM disposal in salt domes was illegal in 1995.

      The company statement contradicts detailed comments from its officials on Aug. 10 that a small amount of NORM was disposed in the Napoleonville Dome with DNR Office of Conservation approval but that it posed no risk to the public.

      Stanley Waligora, a New Mexico-based radiation protection consultant and leading authority on health risks of NORM confirmed that radium levels at Bayou Corne's sinkhole are not within safe limits, but instead, roughly 15 times higher than the state's acceptable level, Smith had said.

      • MaidenHeaven MaidenHeaven

        "Even the very lowest levels of radiation are harmful to life, scientists have concluded in the Cambridge Philosophical Society’s journal Biological Reviews. Reporting the results of a wide-ranging analysis of 46 peer-reviewed studies published over the past 40 years, researchers from the University of South Carolina and the University of Paris-Sud found that variation in low-level, natural background radiation was found to have small, but highly statistically significant, negative effects on DNA as well as several measures of health.

        The scientists reported significant negative effects in a range of categories, including immunology, physiology, mutation and disease occurrence. The frequency of negative effects was beyond that of random chance.

        "It also provides evidence that there is no threshold below which there are no effects of radiation," he added."

    • PavewayIII PavewayIII

      MH – I think it's been pointed out more than once that the 5 pCi/l figure is no stated ANYWHERE as a state or federal action guideline for 'surface water' or soil.

      Nowhere – ever. Most state and federal guidelines are published somewhere on the internet, but nobody has ever provided a link to this imaginary 5 pCi/l level.

      The original authors are either intentionally sensationalizing levels by outright lying, or are misleading people based on their own poor understanding of the regulations. The figure is often attributed to Kaltoften for some reason. I find that pretty unlikely – I would think he can clearly distinguish between drinking water and surface water standards.

      Bayou water is not drinking water and neither is the Mississippi River water. They are SURFACE waters. 5 pCi/l is EPA's maximum allowable DRINKING water standard for combined Radium 226/228:

      The EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for Radium in drinking water is zero pCi/l because it is a suspected or known carcinogen.

      Groundwater normally has more radium than surface water, but is usually not over 50 pCi/l. So the sinkhole sample had more than average ground water, but not some moon-suit and respirator level. When you dissolve a quarter-mile high column of salt and spew the remaining sludge into the bayou, you would expect to see more radium and everything else.

      • 16Penny 16Penny

        Hey Paveway,

        "Bayou water is not drinking water and neither is the Mississippi River water."

        Maybe that is true for us lucky humans, but not for all of the flora and fauna. And we eat them. I guess the only upside to this is we get to see many other species succumb to the cumulative effects of radiation before it becomes and immediate threat to our health.

        • PavewayIII PavewayIII

          The flora and fauna are lucky. How fast would Texas Brine be moving if the only regulators they had to worry about pleasing were the NRC and EPA? Those are the only two agencies that regulate uranium mining in the American concentration camps, with the NRC being the lead agency.

          None of the state laws apply because Indian lands are not part of the state. In fact, the Indian lands don't even belong to the Indian people. The federal government claims it ultimately owns the land and the Indians are "tennants at the convenience of" the U.S. government.

          No new uranium mining allowed near the Grand Canyon because it will mess up the scenery and ruin tourism. Protect the flora and fauna. Stoopid injuns and their previously contaminated aquifers? Who cares – no flora or fauna or tourists are in danger. New in-situ uranium leaching permit: Approved!

      • haizedustrium-1234 haizedustrium-1234

        Fluorene: Water Class A, A-S, AA, AA-S 50 microgram / L
        Water Class GA 50 microgram / L
        Water Class A, A-S, AA, AA-S, B, C 0.54 microgram / L
        Water Class A, A-S, AA, AA-S, B, C, D 4.8 microgram / L
        Water Class SA, SB, SC, I 2.5 microgram / L
        Water Class SA, SB, SC, I, SD 23 microgram / L
        (For NY only)
        No wonder air had a collective value of an average of 10ppbv for hazardous substances last year at Gumbo & HWY70. Some 400+ substances not regulated in water also, various places. Just nipping.


    I can only say that I am so proud of all the residents that got up and spoke at the Committee meeting with the Senators today and just concluded at 2 p.m. Some brought up insurance issues, and some about TB buyouts.

    Texas Brine spokeman, Mr. Martin was struck speechless when Senator Troy Brown flat out asked TB, "Are you going to buy these people out or not?"

    Many emotional moments here, and Channel 4 is doing interviews. Finally they are getting the press they deserve! I will post the articles and vids as they become available.


    Look at the terrain… in these two vids… they do not match, and also know that Hells-Gate hole, you can't walk around it without a respirator and some heat protection.

  • And let's face it… they are for the most-part, BROKE! And, it being so radioactive.. they can't have a bunch of folks walking around out there… exposing just how dirty the not so secreted now… place really is!

  • Edgar Cayce predicted that the Great Lakes would empty into the Gulf of Mexico in the future and that ancient repositories would be discovered when people reached the appropriate level of consciousness. The three repositories mentioned are Egypt, the Bimini area, and the Yucatan.

    "The earth will be broken up in the western portion of America.

  • Earth Changes
    Edgar Cayce predicted that the Great Lakes would empty into the Gulf of Mexico in the future and that ancient repositories would be discovered when people reached the appropriate level of consciousness. The three repositories mentioned are Egypt, the Bimini area, and the Yucatan.

    "The earth will be broken up in the western portion of America. The greater portion of Japan must go into the sea. The upper portion of Europe will be changed as in the twinkling of an eye. Land will appear off the east coast of America. When there is the first breaking up of some conditions in the South Sea and those as apparent in the sinking or rising of that that's almost opposite same, or in the Mediterranean, and the Etna area, then we many know it has begun."

  • irhologram

    See, i believe this is word parsing for a purpose…I disagree that a politician says ANYTHING about a story this big (and they KNOW its big, but suppressed)…without PARSING the words…and LEADING us to the next "conclusions" they want us to have. That's why I say, when he says…leaching multiple caverns,, I tend to think multiple dcaverns are leaching…and if we're being directed to think leaching is causing chemical combinations…I tend to think there are unknown chemical reactions…because this man MOST CERTAINLY has been briefed and knows the skinny.. That's what I meant when I said FAILED. The entire cavern system is likely to be leaching, and what next? Leaching into the adjacent domes?

    • PavewayIII PavewayIII

      OK, that's reasonable. I'll never disagree that lawyers are experts at snaking through minefields of truth.

      Leaching, dripping, gushing or whatever – some unknown chemical reactions can be causing further damage.

      Even if there was no leaching from outside involved, the caverns' bottoms build up dozens – even hundreds – of feet of sand, anhydrates other impurities left over when the salt is dissolved. They were originally dispersed throughout the solid salt and didn't hurt anything. After solution mining, you end up with a hundred feet of concentrated leftover mineral sludge at the very bottom. That could be eating away at the cavern from the inside.

      Food for thought, but the two groups with the most to lose here are the DEQ and the cavern operators like Texas Brine. We have to rely on them entirely to even look for that possibility (which they will never do) and then disclose that danger to the public (which is also never going to happen).

      "What happens in the cavern stays in the cavern" Josef Goebbels, 2013.

      • Thad

        The minerals in the 'sludge'– metal carbonates and sulfates are inert and can not / would not leach or dissolve the salt—by the very nature of being entrained in the salt for such a very long time any chemical activity would have been neutralised–
        In this link there is a list of chemical that will dissolve salt- Other than water NONE occur in nature and none are present in or around the saltdome–

        • PavewayIII PavewayIII

          I agree. They're solids anyway and are not known to be a problem in other salt caverns.

          I'm suggesting the possibility of something else in the cavern unexpectedly reacting with them. The 'something else' could be crude or natural gas seeps through fractures. Maybe some kind of contaminant in the relatively unsaturated brine they pull out from local wells. Could even be the couple thousand feet of production casing and tube that they dropped.

          The cavern is already breached and they can't even get to the original precipitate sludge, so it doesn't matter in that sense. Is it a possibility and could it happen in other caverns in the dome? I don't know, but I'm sure the only two parties controlling that information would never disclose it.

          The fact that the DNR and Texas Brine have not addressed my nutter speculation doesn't somehow imply that this has actually happened and they're keeping silent about it. Since the DNR permits Texas Brine to grind away in a cavern that probably had already exposed the sheath, I don't trust either one to ever reveal risks that they can easily hide from the public.

          What happens in the cavern stays in the cavern. We don't want people snooping around here. Oh, and let's keep this away from FOIA.

    • Thad

      The only thing that can leach the salt dome or the storage caverns in the salt is water— there is no water at same depth as the salt dome– the caverms are inside the done with thousand of feet of salt between each and the outside of the salt.
      The TxBrn is on the outside and has breached — the next closest to it is the CrossTex some 1,000 ft inside, top at~ 3,000 ft, bottom at ~6,000 ft– and the bottom of the salt is the Louan salt bed at 20,000 -30,000 ft.

  • razzz razzz

    Maybe Thad can tell us how a well can become 'plugged' as I find that the most interesting thing of late with the Oxy 3 bore hole. If its cavern ceiling has been falling and exposing the stub or casing losing the original surrounding support then any unforeseen movement could fold/kink/deform the casing, at least that is the way I picture it.

    I think that would lead to more powerfully forces at work as the cavern continues to backfill itself and takeout any weak cavern wall structure(s) that really doesn't qualify as a salt dome wall.

    The fact gas is still being trapped and releasing tells me the pocket collecting gas will probably have to fail it time, showing up as a larger sink hole.

    Did I hear that right, that a barrier of 4500' of sidewall is being suggested to protect a salt dome's integrity? That would mean the current 300 foot barrier is paper thin.

  • Thad

    Plugging– The casing runs from surface in to the cavern– before plugging the inter- production casing was 'cut and dropped' leaving the well casing which is from surface to the top of the cavern some 2,700 ft long. Three cement retainer and cement plugs are set in a series one after the other– each tested before setting the next up. Bottom of the casing, below the cap rock and then the section passing through the aquifer to surface… Then a weld cap.
    If the cavern ceiling is collapsing/ falling. There would be no shear load on the casing.The race would be filling and reaching cap rock. The cavern is only pressured by the migrating gas and that is being vented. Have not seen verification of the ceiling collapsing…?
    New rules from lesson learned– yes- not sure what they will be.. What is just as important is how the distance to outside is measured and verified.. The 300' was a good safe distance BUT there is evidence that Oxy#3 never had that distance and it was known to all parties involved long before failure.

    • razzz razzz

      Thad: If that is the case then I misunderstood the way the word 'plugged' was used. I understood they were to vent, scrub and flare through Oxy 3 bore but can't because of some obstruction.

      I wouldn't rule out shear with a pipe extension hanging in a void with sloughing debris. They are claiming the breached cavern fills up a few feet a day, if it isn't ceiling fall then sinkhole displacement is showing sloughing probably to cavern levels (not that a falling bank or tree makes its way to the cavern void but helps replace whatever does fall in there).

      The locals at TheOilDrum consider a salt dome 300' barrier a joke and if you can't verify the integrity of salt dome walls then you can suffer the consequences. I can see why now.

      • 16Penny 16Penny

        Sarting about 5:50 on the video.


        "currently the Oxy 3 well that enters the cavern is obstructed. Texas Brine is working on opening that bore hole back up and re-casing it so we can get back into the cavern. As of today we cannot get into the cavern."

      • Thad

        Oxy#3 was not re-opened. A second well was drilled beside it, Oxy#3A that is being used for monitoring and venting.
        There is an extreme problem in volumes — volumes of the sinkhole and the cavern fill were calculated by the Shaw engineers– there was a 2.8 million cubic yard difference- the missing material from some underground void(s) of unknown location. It is more now since there has been more filling since calculations were made. This is one of the main reasons for the seismic survey to locate the void.
        The ceiling of the cavern may be collapsing BUT there is not enough material above the original cavern ceiling to equal the fill so it would have already breached the surface. The missing material has had to come fron outside the cavern through the breach.
        The 2.8 million cubic yard void equals ~1800 acre feet– For example: if and when it collapses the sinkhole could be 45 acres with an average depth of 40 ft– that 50 foot ball fields 40 ft deep– FKN scary if you ask me.

        • 16Penny 16Penny

          Was being used Thad. See my previous post for a word for word quote from Hecox yesterday.

          • 16Penny 16Penny

            Of course you will probably say he hasn't been punching holes in the gulf for 40 years so he don't know.

            • Thad

              Thanks for mentioning it

              Missed it, probably because he did not say Oxy#3A the re-entry well. Was not aware they were trying to re-open Oxy#3–??

              If it was Oxy#3A he meant then that could be varification that there is some ceiling collapse. Will check on it–

              • 16Penny 16Penny

                " there is some ceiling collapse" or even migration of the salt. (not claiming either way, just putting possibilities out there to sort) With the rock salt being as plastic as it is I think it is very possible that there is actually "flowing" salt down below due to redistribution of stresses and strain.

                Have you found an expert to refute the permeability of your top soil? If you contacted a geologist or geotechnical engineer I would love to hear how that went. Or if you want to just go over there and water one of the residents lawns for a while I think you will see that it is ludicrous to claim the super power impermeability of the LA swamp is protecting you from a decrease in the soils bearing capacity caused by migrating hydrocarbons (yes both gas and liquid).

                This Wacky, book smart theory of mine (not really, it is a derived science) explains the foundation problems that the residents are having even if there has been little actual subsidence measured in their neighborhood.

                Here is a Link to the whole video:


                I'm gonna watch it again and take better notes tonight. It seemed like the second group of three residents was missing from Rainbeaudais' much appreciated work.

                • Thad

                  Can't find Hecox's comment. the vid in link is part 13. Do you remember/ have another link–? need to know if csng is plugged or collapsed. Nothing current in any of the search sites or parish/ state/ Tx brn that I can find

                  Collapsed is bad news–

                  Oh- impermeability of clkay seals on aquifer– could we call that self evident– as the water in the aquifer has not leaked out

                  • 16Penny 16Penny


                    Sarting about 5:50 on the video.

                    The video is imbedded in the ENE story, or you can look on Rainbeau's page. Part 7, the time into the video is the same.

                    I agree that it was sloppy for him to use Oxy3. I am guessing, but in context it sounds like he means 3A.

                    His voice throughout the testimony sounds very stressed. I can only imagine the pressure he felt that morning.

                    "impermeability of clkay seals on aquifer– could we call that self evident– as the water in the aquifer has not leaked out"

                    I would concede the matter inconclusive if I hadn't seen the video by Rainbeaudais showing bubbling throughout the community after heavy rain. The gas is percolating all around them, right through the super powered confining clay. I can recall a statement to the effect that "where the gas goes, oil will follow. It takes more time due to the viscosity of the fluid." Also, Hecox is pointing out how dandy it is that the sand / gravel aquifer is breaking up large gas bubbles, but if the oils is passing through the same strata isn't it also being broken up and distributed below the confining layer? If it lighter than water then wouldn't your buddy Specific Gravity send it to the top?

                    Think it is all BS, ask one of the geological specialists your friend Rainbeau is trusting her health and possibly her life to.

                    • 16Penny 16Penny

                      The reason you can't find it is they are saying 3A is shut in, inferring they had a decision in that. They want everyone to sleep deeply so they choose the wording carefully so that anyone listening believes they are somewhat in control. The testimony today made it clear for me. Outside specialists will be writing papers and chapters of books after this one's over. They are all along for the ride. Another quote I heard was to the effect of: "this is just a big experiment."

                      One they do not know the outcome of.

              • razzz razzz

                I only know what they said in the Congressional hearings about the original bore hole (now obstructed). I know they keep sinking backup wells for venting and sensing faster than you can put pins in a pincushion but the original bore was double case to do injection and recirculate in/out fluids. I don't think they would want to lose that well work so they are trying to save it…whatever is wrong with it.

                If gas keeps making a new path to the sinkhole, they are going to need a bigger vent well. I thought they should have doubled down on depth with a new well and try to pick off gas and fluids before they start traveling straight up. Of course, what the hell do I know?

                • Thad

                  researching — bad info Hecox used the name Oxy #3 which is the cavern- the Oxy#3 well is still cement plugged – the well he meant was the re-entry well Oxy #3A

                  • razzz razzz

                    Yeah, you can't rely on anybody to get the correction information. Not that I understand it anyway. Maybe they didn't want to subject the original casings to corrosive buildup which is hard to remove during venting crap gasses.

                    Of course again, if Oxy3A is obstructed now, what the hell is going on?

                    If they can't vent the next building gas bubble then get ready for another burp.

                    • 16Penny 16Penny

                      Hit the nail on the head there. Slough in just plugged to throat of the beast, cavern is sealed off and pressure is building. Watch the seismic for warning or get the hell far enough away you don't have to worry and get some sleep like most of the officials / politicians do

  • PavewayIII PavewayIII


    "…Water at 2 feet down the well? Even though the water level mentioned in inside a drilled well hole casing, something is wrong there. 71 percent methane in the well that is full of water except for the top two feet. Someone with an explanation of that is eagerly awaited…"

    The water table right at that spot is 2 feet below ground level. If you dug a three-foot hole, it would eventually fill up with a foot of water.

    If you wanted to get and idea of the dissolved methane in that water, you need a well. You close in the well in for a week and then measure the pressure before you open it and measure the gas composition after you open it. The gas in a closed well will look like whatever gas is dissolved in the water.

    • Thad

      Ya got it, my well is from the bottom Chicot aquifer @ 260' in well bore stands at 12'. Once or twice a year have to bled nethane off tank-
      The reading in the geohole is only relative– does not reflect % methane in water just that it is there.

    • timemachine2020 timemachine2020

      @Paveway – So Bayou Corne is at three feet above sea level, and the wells show water at 2 feet. Does that mean that Bayou Corne has sunk a foot?

      • 16Penny 16Penny

        I'm not sure if that is true. It could be that they are already sinking, surely where the aquifer soils have fallen in to fill the collapse zone. I think the subsidence of the general area will be much more noticeable after they vent between 50 and ?? million barrels of methane into the atmosphere. Remember the aquifer flows to the gulf. There is resistance to that flow so head pressure is built up within the aquifer. The balance of pressure and resistance is what effectually determines the level of the water table underground.

        This is slightly outside of my expertise but I think I have a good understanding of the big picture here.

  • Thad

    I do like to keep it real and am ticked off being mislead climbing a stump and shouting their misinformation
    Oxy#3 is the cavern and is also the name of the orginal well into the cavern(actually there may have been a name change for BOTH earlier)
    Oxy#3 the well was plugged– the re-entry well drld was/is Oxy#3A and it is "plugged" and has been since 19 Jan. Hecox may have been saying the entry into Oxy#3 (the cavern) was blocked and I heard Oxy#3(the well) — whatever-
    Entry in to the cavern Oxy#3 is blocked because well Oxy #3A is blocked— looking at the drilling reports of the hardware TxBrn ran inside the well there is no reason unless they dropped something in the hole– but they did not report that. So it would seem that the casing has collapsed/ been crushed. there is only one thing that could do that – a formation collapse/ shift– either in the salt or in the caprock—this could be a definite "OH SHITE" moment– TxBrn needs to start a second re-entry well– right now they need to go into Oxy#3A and perforate the casng at the lowest point possible to bled off and prevent pressure build up.

    • 16Penny 16Penny

      Thad, I am glad we have returned to more civil discourse. A much less likely cause for a blockage would be some type of debris, sludge mud whatever, being pushed up into the casing from the remains of Oxy3 cavern like a potato in a spud gun. Not saying it is likely or true so please take it as just a outlying possibility.

      I am with you on the most likely scenario being the casing was bent by falling ceiling debris or shifting geology. It would be helpful to know how far in the plug or obstruction is. I wonder if they didn't say because it reveals something they don't want out yet.

      • Thad

        As far as a mechanical blockage by debris that easy enough to remedy if salt RIH with tubing strng and wash iut with fresh water. If not salt they can pressure up the casng and blow clear–don't know csng dia and wt but burst strenth would be over 2,500 psi.- double any pressure seen in the cavern– Of all else fail they can get workover rig and drl out debris–They have not cleared in 20 days so I'll stand with collapsed or crushed.

        "TB latest sinkhole update claimed 27 wells" bear in mind that these wells are postholes compared to a working well– only into the aquifier ~100 ft.. There is one 1,000 observation

        • 16Penny 16Penny

          Great point Thad, if it was just debris blocking it it would have been cleared up by now. That leaves bent/crushed casing.

    • razzz razzz

      With that, I guess I shouldn't expect any reply to my questions that I sent to TB about Oxy#3 & #3A, clarifying each status. I specifically mentioned that hanging sensors in either well didn't count as a working well. Asked if they are not working, why not. Listening to crickets in the background is a hobby of mine.

      TB latest sinkhole update claimed 27 wells needed to monitor and vent. But I watched video of a recent meeting where that was to be disregarded. New plan now?

      In the meantime they are readying for seismic ground tests and down hole ping tests but I think they are to shallow. Besides, one further cave in and they will need to re-ping and/or re-thump.

      Cap-rock is probably fine, it's the side of the dome that is in trouble as it can't support itself above the breached cavern while gas and fluids used to be trapped in failing strata layers are now moving on up.