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Officials: ‘Hot’ materials with 7 billion Bq/kg of cesium found 15 km from Fukushima plant — “Most likely” came from Unit 3 — Over 7,500 Bq/kg of Plutonium and Americium (PHOTOS)

Published: February 14th, 2014 at 9:26 am ET
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Follow-up to: Asahi: Highly radioactive 'mystery objects' found -- Rumored to be pieces of Fukushima reactor buildings -- 15 kilometers from nuclear plant (PHOTOS)

EXSKF, Feb. 13, 2014: [...] four small pieces of debris found at the river mouth in Naraha-machi 15 kilometers from the plant may have come from Reactor 3. [...] TEPCO disclosed the result of the analysis of the debris done by Japan Atomic Energy Agency [...] TEPCO and JAEA’s conclusion [is that] small pieces of debris came from Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, most likely from the Reactor 3 building [...] There will be no further analysis whether there is any contribution from MOX fuel [...]

Selected radionuclides detected in Sample 3:

  • Plutonium-238, 239, 240 + Am-241 = 7,675 Bq/kg
  • Cesium-134, 137 = 7.3 billion Bq/kg
  • Cobalt-60 = 1,225,000 Bq/kg

Yomiuri Shimbun translated by EXSKF, Feb. 14, 2014: [The debris] could have been scattered by the hydrogen explosion in the reactor building, or they could have come from the ocean.

View Tepco’s presentation about the debris here (pdf)

Published: February 14th, 2014 at 9:26 am ET
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82 comments to Officials: ‘Hot’ materials with 7 billion Bq/kg of cesium found 15 km from Fukushima plant — “Most likely” came from Unit 3 — Over 7,500 Bq/kg of Plutonium and Americium (PHOTOS)

  • stellarblue51

    The "hot particles" came from the Fukushima Dai Ichi NPP? DUH! TEPCO believes the particular amount of high radiation may be due to MOX fuel in the #3 reactor. All their analysis is very interesting, however, no one of any import seems to give a rat's behind. News in and news out, nothing changes.


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  • FallOut FallOut

    Spent Fuel Pool (Argonne National Laboratory 2010

    •This case is of intellectual interest as an “end point” of the water loss problem in a spent fuel pool. Which fuel assemblies are safe, and which fuel assemblies are at risk ?

    Water addition:adding water to the bottom of an empty spent fuel pool can damage an assembly with a heat rate of 7kw or less that has reached equilibrium in air! –The water can block the circulation of air and cause the fuel assembly to overheat. The heat removed by the low level of water is insufficient to cool the assembly.

    •A water level above the top of the rack allows natural circulation of water to occur.

    •When the water level falls to the top of the fuel racks, natural circulation stops and water heat-up begins.
    •Water temperatures will rise and boiling will eventually occur in the hotter assemblies.

    •Boil-off will occur and water levels will drop—probably over the time scale of hours.

    •As the levels drop, steam from the boil-off will cool the uncovered parts of the fuel.

    •At some point, the rising steam will be insufficient to cool the uncovered fuel and clad temperatures will rise until they reach the “ignition” point.

    •When the water is at the bottom of the fuel, say about the 20% level, the steaming rate is probably insufficient to cool the rest of the assembly, and air circulation is not possible. So fuel assemblies that may be safe in air are likely to melt with a low water level.

    http://www-ns.iaea


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      • FallOut FallOut

        Case #4: Fuel in Completely Drained Spent Fuel Pool

        •This case is of intellectual interest as an “end point” of the water loss problem in a spent fuel pool. Which fuel assemblies are safe, and which fuel assemblies are at risk?

        •The decay heat curves are used, with added heat rates to cover uncertainties, to calculate conductive, convective and radiative heat losses (i.e. thermal radiation) to structural components and fuel assemblies.

        •The general view among the industry is that fuel assemblies that have aged for more than about 120 days will rise to an elevated temperature and achieve equilibrium with a circulating air environment. This stable temperature will have the cladding below the 1100- 1200 C temperatures at which combustion of zirconium begins. This temperature is also below the melting temperature of commonly used steel alloys of around 1400 C.

        •Substantial oxidation of zirconium may occur at these elevated temperatures.

        •The elevated temperatures and loads may cause structural damage to the fuel pool or fuel racks. Detailed calculations are needed to model these effects.

        •Heat rate at 120 days is about 7 kw per assembly.


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    • FallOut FallOut

      If the water level is above the top of the fuel racks, decay heat in the fuel could cause the pool water to boil. Once water levels fall below a certain level in the fuel assembly, the exposed portion of the fuel cladding might heat up sufficiently to ignite if no mitigative actions were taken. This could result in the release of a substantial fraction of the cesium inventory to the environment in the form of aerosols.

      A zirconium cladding fire in the presence of steam could generate hydrogen gas over the course of the event. The generation and transport of hydrogen gas in air was modeled in the Sandia calculations as was the deflagration of a hydrogen-air mixture in the closed building space above the spent fuel pool The deflagration of hydrogen could enhance the release of radioactive material in some scenarios.


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      • FallOut FallOut

        Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

        Operating nuclear power plants typically discharge about one-third of a reactor core of spent fuel every 18–24 months. Additionally, the entire reactor core may be placed into the spent fuel pool (offloaded) during outage periods for refueling. The analyses of spent fuel thermal behavior described in this chapter demonstrate that freshly discharged spent fuel generates too much decay heat to be passively air cooled. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that this fuel be stored in a pool that has an active heat removal system (i.e,, water pumps and heat exchangers) for at least one year as a safety matter. Current design practices for approved dry storage systems require five years’ minimum decay in spent fuel pools. Although spent fuel younger than five years could be stored in dry casks, the changes required for shielding and heat removal could be substantial, especially for fuel that has been discharged for less than about three years.

        http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11263&page=57


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        • weeman

          The inventory off cooled spent fuel in the pools world wide should be placed in dry caskets at this time and operating licence should be pulled until complete, now that is a start and get them out of a uncontained building with massive fuel load from up to thirty years inventory, this is absolute madness, 97 percent of energy is still in used fuel bundles, 97 percent.
          Death on two legs, you never had a heart.


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          • FallOut FallOut

            I was wonder the same thing. In some of the .pdf's they talked about racking extra loads into a pool not designed for that.

            Also, they mentioned how an empty pool would cause the racks to deform under the heat & the pools could sustain structural issues. I can't find it now but they also talk about the pools being two feet thick with a 1/2 inch stainless steel liner.


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          • FallOut FallOut

            The pools were two feet thick except the outer wall ( the side of the pool up against the outer wall was thinner. )


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          • FallOut FallOut

            Although only one-third of the fuel in the reactor core is replaced during each refueling cycle, operators commonly offload the entire core (especially at pressurized water reactors [PWRs]) into the pool during refueling 4 to facilitate loading of fresh fuel or for inspection or repair of the reactor vessel and internals. Heat generation in the pool is at its highest point just after the full core has been offloaded.

            Pool heat loads can be quite high, as exemplified by a “typical” boiling water reactor (BWR) which was used in some of the analyses discussed elsewhere in this chapter (this BWR is hereafter referred to as the “reference BWR”). This pool has approximately 3800 locations for storage of spent fuel assemblies, about 3000 of which are occupied by four-and-one-third reactor cores (13 one-third-core offloads) in a pool approximately 35 feet wide, 40 feet long, and 39 feet deep (10.7 meters wide, 12.2 meters long, and 11.9 meters deep) with a water capacity of almost 400,000 gallons (1.51 million liters). According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff, the total decay heat in the spent fuel pool is 3.9 megawatts (MW) ten days after a one-third-core offload. The vast majority of this heat is from decay in the newly discharged spent fuel. Heat loads would be substantially higher in spent fuel pools that contained a full-core offload.
            Although spent fuel pools have a variety of designs, they share one common characteristic:


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            • FallOut FallOut

              Almost all spent fuel pools are located outside of the containment structure that holds the reactor pressure vessel.5 In some reactor designs, the spent fuel pools are contained within the reactor building,6 which is typically constructed of about 2 feet of reinforced concrete (see FIGURE 3.1). In other designs, however, one or more walls of the spent fuel pool may be located on the exterior wall of an auxiliary building that is located adjacent to the containment building (see FIGURE 3.2). As described in more detail below, some pools are built at or below grade, whereas others are located at the top of the reactor building.

              The enclosing superstructures above the pool are typically steel, industrial-type buildings designed to house cranes that are used to move reactor components, spent fuel, and spent fuel casks. These superstructures above the pool are designed to resist damage from seismic loads but not from large tomado-bome missiles (e.g., cars and telephone poles), which would usually impact the superstructures at low angles (i.e-, moving horizontally). In contrast the typical spent fuel pool is robust. The pool walls and the external walls of the building housing the pool (these external walls may incorporate one or more pool walls in some plants) are designed for seismic stability and to resist horizontal

              http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11263&page=40


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              • razzz razzz

                PWR designs store fuel differently and not high in the sky. Bundles are fed in low and travel horizontally into a refueling pool and are stood upright to be worked with.

                Search Arnie's site out and you will find him pointing out where Unit 4's pool flyover shows the fuel and fuel racks exposed (no water to cover them) with steam still rising from below (remaining water).

                The first thing that happened during the Great Quake, the pools lost 2'-3' of water just by sloshing back and forth and out of the pool, surfs up. Any spent fuel recently removed from the core or less than a year old begins heating up faster than the older spent fuel bundles from more decay heat available.

                Who knows what happens when fuel pools are subject to wave action and then high heat at upper half with the lower half still in water while taking debris hits from explosions and falling projectiles.

                Anywhere that hydrogen can collect then pressurize at bit because their is no escape route will act more like a bomb than just burning in open air. Maybe Unit 4 trapped hydrogen in pockets on different floor levels until it lit off. Very little black soot would form as it burns clean but any buildup of pressure would cause more of an explosion in enclosed spaces thus creating more destruction.

                Unit 3's flyover pics shows some lower floor completely missing with only dirt remaining and some kind of pump with piping still attached suspended in the air above the dirt like everything else…


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              • HoTaters HoTaters

                horizontal shear stress, I'm guessing that paper said, FallOut.


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  • PhilipUpNorth PhilipUpNorth

    15km is a long way for debris to be thrown, don't you think?
    Do you remember that heavy black soot from the burning underground corium?
    How far away from Fukushima are they finding very hot black soot?
    Remember the decontamination efforts aboard the Ronald Reagan?
    It has been fully decontaminated, now, but they are still running training exercises out of San Diego.
    So it goes. ;)


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    • CodeShutdown CodeShutdown

      Range of the M198 howitzer 22.4km, a super projectile hurler. When nuke plants explode!

      When nuclear plants explode…the world doesnt listen


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      • atomicistheword

        code…,

        "Plutonium and Americium" There is prophecy in these two words alone.

        Plutonium and Americium = The end of capitalism and the revelation of the decent of man. What is the mark of this man Nero and his descendants. To destroy a civilisation by act of wealth acquisition and withdrawing by act of greed the wealth of humankind. Thus destroying a civilisation. What an insane bunch of shadow puppeteers. A unicorn won't save you now, a crest bears witness of your crime. The cake eating underlings have awoken and the spirit within them never left, you have failed Nero. Seal the windows on Wall Street, we don't want anyone jumping out of them, escaping the trials and tribulation ahead. Give to Nero what belongs to him. In God we trust, all bow to Nero the god of this world and his anti-Christ sun of perdition, the imposter Christ. Those with eyes to see and ears to hear know what this message means.

        Did you know that Adolph Hitler's father was the bastard son of a wrath child?


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        • CodeShutdown CodeShutdown

          pithy allegory, atomicistheword. Baby faced psychopaths have ruled since the beginning it seems. The picture is complete with Nero murdering his mother….however she was no moralist either.

          Nero "showed neither discrimination nor moderation in putting to death whomsoever he pleased"


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    • gottagetoffthegrid

      Phil, the particles are very small — 0.4 grams, and are made of plastic and wood. small ash particles can fly a long way when blasted 1000ft into the air.

      or this could be debris from the near the plant being dumped in the river as part of the "clean up", which seems to SOP for TEPCOs contractors.


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      • I'm asking myself what structural or equipment pieces-parts of nuclear plants (apart from desks and chairs) are made of plastic and wood. Perhaps this is some compound material used as pipe insulation?


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        • FallOut FallOut

          I have a few question's.

          Does water contain all the issues of damaged rods in fuel pool #3 ?

          Do neutrons ect continue moving through the water ? Or is everything contained ? Thanks.


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          • razzz razzz

            Spent fuel pools have air intake ports on the perimeter capturing some of the offgassing for analysis to monitor conditions. Nuke sites are always releasing some form of radioactivity, it is the nature of the beast allowed 'within limits'.

            Can't contain everything such as Tritium or gasses in an open pool but the water is filtered during cooling recirculation.

            Unit 3's pool ended up with deformed sidewalls that pulled away (got hit and impacted) from its concrete backing walls where TEPCO had to inject foam to prevent possible leakage in the gaps and voids. Unit 4's pool was 'legged up' adding support after the building was heavily damage.

            The only reason to offload an entire reactor fuel core into a SFP is to replace the SS shroud. Not suppose to do temporary repairs on a shroud (welding of cracks or strapping them closed is done against protocol), should be decommissioned at that point (EOL) but replacing shrouds is a new invention never meant to be in original design. Done only to extended reactor life to make money. Unit 3 had undergone a shroud replacement.

            Unit 4's pool was overloaded because of the shroud replacement in progress besides lack of scheduled removal of fuel due to expense of dry storage down the line. Typical for US nuke plants to have overloaded storage pools to avoid costs of dry cask storage. Safety is an afterthought.

            Unit 4 reactor was also manufactured defective when deformed during reheating for hardening (thin walls).


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          • FallOut asks…

            "Does water contain all the issues of damaged rods in fuel pool #3 ?"

            Depends on whether or not there's water in the #3 SFP, and how much leakage of water that may be there is happening.

            "Do neutrons ect continue moving through the water ? Or is everything contained ?"

            Neutrons are slowed by water, thus their travel distance is shortened. Normally they would not get beyond the water in an SFP, where they are produced by decay fissions in the <3% of spent fuel that is U235 (plus transmuted component of P239). If a sustained fission reaction is going on, neutrons are gnarly. That's why nobody goes into the containments under operation. Sustained fission is not supposed to happen in the SFP, even if melting does. Fuel melting doesn't need fission and doesn't necessarily imply fission. If there's no water, a sustained fission reaction (or critical mass like a bomb) can't happen with reactor fuel, not enough fissile material.


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      • PhilipUpNorth PhilipUpNorth

        You are correct, gottagetoffthegrid!
        The videos of the Unit3 explosion are from well inland, looking West. The smoke and ash from the nuclear explosion at Unit3 are seen to immediately drift off to the south, towards the right on the video. How could very light debris, like wood and plastic, get into a river 15km away, any other way besides drifting there on currents of air, or being dumped there by cleanup crews?


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    • Agreed, and all of the materials found so far are floatable. See link to article above for a plausible explanation, but one that is terrible to consider.


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    • PurpleRain PurpleRain

      Didn't they find that it wasn't black soot…that it was radioactive particles that just resembled soot? I think Arnie Gundersen and or his people determined this way back when they did the air filter tests.


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    • unincredulous unincredulous

      Incineration, wind, tornado, typhoon, ocean currents, bird picked it up, got stuck on a dog's foot or in it's hair, someone picked it up and dropped it, etc. It looks big enough and weight is light enough to be picked up pretty easily.

      Or it was blown sky high by a bunch of delinquent "nuclear engineers."

      Pretty insignificant news. Someone said the corium weight was 77 tons. Where's that?


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    • Angela_R

      Ever think that the worst may have happened in March 2011?

      Check out 'Fukushima Revisited- New Unbelievable Pictures' published Nov.19 2013. These pictures appear to have had very little viewing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfggOV-lhwI
      And the fuel pools were where?


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    • razzz razzz

      'Reagan replacing Washington in Japan'

      "…The U.S. Navy announced Tuesday that the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan will be replacing the USS George Washington at Yokosuka Naval Base near Tokyo. When the move takes place — the specific timelines are yet to be announced — the Washington will head to Virginia for overhaul and refueling, and the Reagan will leave its current home port in San Diego…"
      http://www.cnn.com/2014/01/15/world/asia/navy-japan-carriers/

      I seriously doubt the USS RR will ever be fully decontaminated. Radiation is pretty much forever.


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  • Nick

    Person on the beach: What is that? Looks like a mangled piece of steel.

    TEPCO executive: Materials being gathered on Japanese beaches are like, totally safe. It is believed that some stray components of the turbine building at Fukushima got sloshed away on 3/11/11.

    POTB: But why does my wrist feel tingly?

    TE: You have carpal tunnel. The next available appt to see a wrist specialist is in 3 weeks. Now would you like to make that appt now?

    POTB: Umm, now my head is getting fuzzy, I feel faint.

    TE: The strain of the heavy snowfall has taken it's toll on you. You need to rest.

    POTB: Okay….zzzzzzzz

    TE: Hello? Wake-up! Oh my. Later… yes, I can confirm that
    I found a dead body next to the material. What should I do? Lie still? Got it.


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  • FallOut FallOut

    On average, spent fuel ponds hold five to 10 times more long-lived radioactivity than a reactor core. Particularly worrisome is the large amount of cesium 137 in fuel ponds, which contain anywhere from 20 to 50 million curies of this dangerous isotope. With a half-life of 30 years, cesium 137 gives off highly penetrating radiation and is absorbed in the food chain as if it were potassium. According to the NRC, as much as 100 percent of a pool’s cesium 137 would be released into the environment in a fire.

    In comparison, the 1986 Chernobyl accident released about 40 percent of the reactor core’s 6 million curies of cesium 137 into the atmosphere, resulting in massive off-site radiation exposures. A single spent fuel pond holds more cesium 137 than was deposited by all atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Hemisphere combined.

    http://www.nirs.org/radwaste/atreactorstorage/alvarezarticle2002.pdf


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    • FallOut FallOut

      At the time of the accident, in addition to a large number of used fuel assemblies, unit 4's pond also held a full core load of 548 fuel assemblies while the reactor was undergoing maintenance, these having been removed at the end of November.

      The temperature of these ponds is normally low, around 30°C when circulation is maintained with the Fuel Pool Circulation and Clean-up (FCP) system, but they are designed to be safe at about 85°C in the absence of pumped circulation (and presumably with moderate fuel load). They are about 12 metres deep, so the fuel is normally covered by 7 metres of water.

      Unit 2, 3 & 4 ponds are about 12 x 10 metres, with 1240, 1220 and 1590 assemblies capacity respectively (unit 1 is about 12 x 7 m, 900 assemblies). Unit 4 pond contains a total 1331 used assemblies (783 plus full fuel load of 548), giving it a heat load of about 3 MW thermal, according to France's IRSN, which in that case could lead to 115 cubic metres of water boiling off per day, or about one tenth of its volume. Other estimates put the heat load at 2 MW. Unit 3's pool contains 514 fuel assemblies, unit 1 has 292 and unit 2 has 587, giving it a heat load of 1 MW. There is no MOX fuel in any of the ponds. Unit 4 pond also has 204 fresh fuel assemblies which were ready for loading. In 2012 some of these were removed and checked, and found to be undamaged.
      Two of the reactor unit ponds (2 & 4) were unusually full even before unit 4 core was unloaded in November.


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  • SykeWar(DELETED) SykeWar

    So a simple gas explosion did this? Huh.


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  • Capt. Nemo Capt. Nemo

    With about 43 million Japanese living within the 20,000 sq. mile area of high contamination, Japan is putting 1/4 of its population in great jeopardy. Nothing comparable was the case with Chernobyl–but would have been if Gorbachev had procrastinated. He deployed 600,000 army reserves as well as skilled workmen like miners to quickly prevent a huge nuclear explosion that would have wiped out one half of Europe! Perhaps one virtue of the Soviet system was that one man could mobilize that many that quickly and get the job done. In Japan apparently the Shoguns, meaning a small number of oligarchs, make the decisions. I am not sure but that that is the case in the USA. Consider the event produced by BP in the Gulf. Or Katrina. For some reason the USA responses are pretty slow and sloppy. The President has to get his permissions from Wall Street apparently.
    So I surmise that in Japan it is the business leaders that are holding things up, fearing their corporations will suffer if Fukushima is turned into a major crises of world changing proportions. So here we are three years later with a minimum of information and TEPCO still humming and tinkering! Obviously American powers are happy enough with this. So more nothing disguised as something for 2014 barring a good sized earthquake. I suppose the ENEnews articles keep us busy with the details many (most?) of which turn out later to be misleading or simply false. Save the corporations whether BP or Toyota.


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    • GQR2

      Its slow and hard to coordinate because its all contracted out at cost plus mercenary contractors. Look who Jack Lew is meeting with this week. All LLCs not economic experts, advertisers,and paid off think tankers. Its sickening. There is no leadership the financial markets which are running on insane bound to fail algorithms for their quantum trades.

      No leadership at all. No concern for humanity the crazy idiots are gluttons at the troth while they destroy millions of years of civilization. They had no right. no right. They took all the gifts of this universe! and plundered everything.


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      • GQR2

        Instead of leadership we get a bunch at Paranoid Inc building his own cyber command to fight pre crime. Stasi Bastards.
        No projects or funding for say…cleaning up and taking care of the sick and disabled. Instead they are trying to turn the whole society against itself. The needy are not the enemy. We are all one natural disaster short of being "needy" of welfare or a pension to eat and heat with,housing,medical care.
        All they do is war. Like over grown baby Huey's spoiled children who would rather blow stuff up and kill something then clean up their rooms.
        Masters of War. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/15/nsa-mind-keith-alexander-star-trek


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        • unincredulous unincredulous

          "Pre-crime" sounds like an attempt to punish the innocent.

          Have'nt committed a crime yet? You are a criminal!

          Well, at least they don't have to screen the nuclear industry. That industry has saved the thought police a hell of a lot of money.


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  • TheBigPicture TheBigPicture

    PLUTONIUM . . .

    Found 15 km away, and found in Lithuania (huge distance via the jet stream).

    Breathing in less than one millionth of a gram of Plutonium will kill you.

    Plutonium is produced artificially by man, and is a byproduct of nuclear reactors.

    It will be outlawed in the 21st century.


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  • obewanspeaks obewanspeaks

    Not until all the profit taking is completed… :(


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  • ss.minnow

    Japanese officials sifting through tsunami debris on B.C. coastline …

    m.theglobeandmail.com/…/britis…
    by Andrea Woo – in 601 Google+ circles
    Sep 26, 2013 – On Wednesday, joined by Ucluelet Mayor Bill Irving, councillors, emergency officials and … Japan gave $1-million to help clean up B.C.'s 26,000 kilometres coastline, though Seiji … "How long before the volunteers for debris clean up realize our government, our Media and our health care workers have neglected to inform them of the true nature of this beast namely radiation and all it's lovely relatives that migrated along with it." So much for being a good citizen. I wonder what the Japanese officials were sifting through the debris for? Family photo's maybe!


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  • We Not They Finally

    And they are forcing people to move back to villages 20 km (about 12 miles) from the plant or lose their living stipends. (See fairewinds.org.) These people are just monsters.


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  • We Not They Finally

    "There will be no further analysis whether it is from the MOX fuel"? There will also be no further life until further notice. If you get as far as "further," that is.


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  • Sol Man

    There is no reason to believe that these escalations will decrease.
    They'll have to start using some of the numbers from the banker bailouts/ins.


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  • dawnzdreams dawnzdreams

    I found this research conducted back in 2004 to examine the effects of Chernobyl and thought it would be fitting for this site. It is very eye opening and certainly makes one question how bad the health problems will be for Fukushima.

    Chernobyl Death Toll: 985,000, Mostly from Cancer

    http://www.globalresearch.ca/new-book-concludes-chernobyl-death-toll-985-000-mostly-from-cancer/20908


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